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Figure S1. Normalized expression (±SE) of diapause related genes in 10-day-old female Leptinotarsa decemlineata from Italy and Russia reared in a short- or long-day photoperiod. Expression differences are compared with the long-day group from Italy (set to 1). Note the differences in y-axis scale. (a) shows genes with functions related to hormonal regulation, insulin signalling and the circadian clock, whereas (b) shows genes with metabolic and stress-tolerance related functions.

Table S1. Amplification efficiencies (%) and R2 values for all primer pairs of target and reference genes used in this study.

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