• 1
    Australian Bureau of Statistics. National Health Survey: summary of results, 2007–2008. [cited 2012 Nov 1]. Available from URL:
  • 2
    Buist AS, McBurnie MA, Vollmer WM, Gillespie S, Burney P, Mannino DM et al. International variation in the prevalence of COPD (the BOLD Study): a population-based prevalence study. Lancet 2007; 370: 741750.
  • 3
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). [cited 2012 Nov 1]. Available from URL:
  • 4
    Lundbäck B, Lindberg A, Lindström M, Rönmark E, Jonsson AC, Jönsson E et al. Not 15 but 50% of smokers develop COPD? – Report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden Studies. Respir Med 2003; 97: 115122.
  • 5
    Zeng G, Sun B, Zhong N. Non-smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – a neglected entity? Respirology 2012; 17: 908912.
  • 6
    Shirtcliffe P, Weatherall M, Marsh S, Travers J, Hansell A, McNaughton A et al. COPD prevalence in a random population survey: a matter of definition. Eur Respir J 2007; 30: 232239.
  • 7
    Salvi SS, Barnes PJ. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in non-smokers. Lancet 2009; 374: 733743.
  • 8
    Pretto JJ, McDonald VM, Wark PAB, Hensley MJ. Multicentre audit of inpatient management of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: comparison with clinical guidelines. Intern Med J 2012; 42: 380387.
  • 9
    Barnes PJ. Immunology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nat Rev Immunol 2008; 8: 183192.
  • 10
    Rutgers S, Postma D, ten Hacken NH, Kauffman HF, van Der Mark TW, Koëter GH et al. Ongoing airway inflammation in patients with COPD who do not currently smoke. Thorax 2000; 55: 1218.
  • 11
    Gibson PG, Simpson JL. The overlap syndrome of asthma and COPD: what are its features and how important is it? Thorax 2009; 64: 728735.
  • 12
    Hardin M, Silverman EK, Barr RG, Hansel NH, Schroder JD, Make BJ et al. The clinical features of the overlap between COPD and asthma. Respir Res 2011; 12: 127.
  • 13
    Fabbri LM, Rabe KF. From COPD to chronic systemic inflammatory syndrome. Lancet 2007; 370: 797799.
  • 14
    Feary JR, Rodrigues LC, Smith CJ, Hubbard RB, Gibson JE. Prevalence of major comorbidities in subjects with COPD and incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke: a comprehensive analysis using data from primary care. Thorax 2010; 65: 956962.
  • 15
    Hodgson DB, Saini G, Bolton CE, Steiner MC. Thorax in focus: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 2012; 67: 171176.
  • 16
    Punturieri A, Szabo E, Croxton TL, Shapiro SD, Dubinett SM. Lung cancer and COPD – needs and opportunities for integrated research. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009; 101: 554559.
  • 17
    Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Inc. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Revised 2011. [cited 2012 Nov 1]. Available from URL:
  • 18
    Page A, Ambrose S, Glover J, Hetzel D. Atlas of Avoidable Hospitalisations in Australia: Ambulatory Care-Sensitive Conditions. Adelaide: Public Health Information Development Unit, University of Adelaide; 2007.
  • 19
    Hoogendorn M, Feenstra TL, Hoogenveen RT, Al M, Molken MR. Association between lung function and exacerbation frequency in patients with COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2010; 5: 435444.
  • 20
    Decramer M, Janssens W, Miravitlles M. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lancet 2012; 379: 13411351.
  • 21
    Wilkinson TMA, Donaldson GC, Hurst JR, Seemungal TAR, Wedzicha JA. Early therapy improves outcomes of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004; 169: 12981303.
  • 22
    Ram FSF, Picot J, Lightowler J, Wedzicha JA. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for treatment of respiratory failure due to exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; CD004104.
  • 23
    Almagro P, Calbo E, Ochoa de Echaguen A, Barreiro B, Quintana S, Heredia JL et al. Mortality after hospitalization for COPD. Chest 2002; 121: 14411448.
  • 24
    Almagro P, Salvado M, Garcia-Vidal C, Rodriguez-Carballeira M, Delgado M, Barreiro B et al. Recent improvement in long-term survival after a COPD hospitalisation. Thorax 2010; 6: 2983025.
  • 25
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2010. [cited 2012 Nov 1]. Available from URL:
  • 26
    The COPD-X Plan. Australian and New Zealand guidelines for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2011. [cited 2012 Nov 1]. Available from URL:
  • 27
    Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, Weinberger SE, Hanania NA, Criner G, Van der Molen T et al. Diagnosis and management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical practice guideline update from the American College of Physicians, American College of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. Ann Intern Med 2011; 155: 179191.
  • 28
    Yang IA, Clarke M, Sim EHA, Fong KM. Inhaled corticosteroids for stable COPD. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; CD002991.
  • 29
    Rodrigo GJ, Neffen H. Comparison of indacaterol with tiotropium or twice-daily long-acting β-agonists for stable COPD: a systematic review. Chest 2012; 142: 11041110.
  • 30
    Mahler DA, D'Urzo A, Bateman ED, Özkan SA, White T, Peckitt C et al. Concurrent use of indacaterol plus tiotropium in patients with COPD provides superior bronchodilation compared with tiotropium alone: a randomised, double-blind comparison. Thorax 2012; 67: 781788.
  • 31
    Rabe KF. Update on roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Br J Pharmacol 2011; 163: 5367.
  • 32
    Wedzicha JA, Rabe KF, Martinez FJ, Bredenbröker D, Brose M, Goehring UM et al. Effiacy of roflumilast in the COPD frequent exacerbator phenotype. Chest 2013; 143: 13021311.
  • 33
    Calverley PMA, Martinez FJ, Fabbri LM, Goehring UM, Rabe KF. Does roflumilast decrease exacerbations in severe COPD patients not controlled by inhaled combination therapy? The REACT study protocol. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2012; 7: 375382.
  • 34
    Ford PA, Durham AL, Russell REK, Gordon F, Adcock IM, Barnes PJ. Treatment effects of low-dose theophylline combined with an inhaled corticosteroid in COPD. Chest 2010; 137: 13381344.
  • 35
    Albert RK, Connett J, Bailey WC, Casaburi R, Cooper JA Jr, Criner GJ et al. Azithromycin for prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD. N Engl J Med 2011; 365: 689690.
  • 36
    Mosholder AD, Mathew J, Alexander JJ, Smith H, Nambiar S. Cardiovascular risks with azithromycin and other antibacterial drugs. N Engl J Med 2013; 368: 16651668.
  • 37
    Salpeter S, Ormiston T, Salpeter E. Cardioselective beta-blockers for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; CD003566.
  • 38
    Rutten FH, Zuithoff NP, Hak E, Grobbee DE, Hoes AW. Beta-blockers may reduce mortality and risk of exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Arch Intern Med 2010; 170: 880887.
  • 39
    Short PM, Lipworth SI, Elder DH, Schembri S, Lipworth BJ. Effect of beta blockers in treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2011; 342: d2549
  • 40
    Dickstein K, Cohen-Solal A, Filippatos G, McMurray JJV, Ponikowski P, Poole-Wilson PA et al. ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008. Eur Heart J 2008; 29: 23882442.
  • 41
    Varkey JB, Varkey AB, Varkey B. Prophylactic vaccinations in COPD: current status. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2009; 15: 9095.
  • 42
    Puhan MA, Gimeno-Santos E, Scharplatz M, Troosters T, Walters EH, Steurer J. Pulmonary rehabilitation following exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; CD005305.
  • 43
    Trappenburg JC, Monninkhof EM, Bourbeau J, Trooster T, Schrijvers AJ, Verheij TJ et al. Effect of an action plan with ongoing support by a case manager on exacerbation-related outcome in patients with COPD: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Thorax 2011; 66: 977984.
  • 44
    Bischoff EW, Hamd DH, Sedeno M, Benedetti A, Schermer TR, Bernard S et al. Effects of written action plan adherence on COPD exacerbation recovery. Thorax 2011; 66: 2631.
  • 45
    Bourbeau J, Julien M, Maltais F, Rouleau M, Beaupré A, Bégin R et al. Reduction of hospital utilization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a disease-specific self-management intervention. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 585591.
  • 46
    Walters JAE, Turnock AC, Walters EH, Wood-Baker R. Action plans with limited patient education only for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; CD005074.
  • 47
    Effing T, Monninkhof EM, van der Valk PD. Self-management education for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; CD002990.
  • 48
    Bucknall CE, Miller G, Lloyd SM. Glasgow Supported Self-Management Trial (GSuST) for patients with moderate to severe COPD: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2012; 344: e1060.
  • 49
    Fan VS, Gaziano JM, Lew R, Leatherman S, Bourbeau J, Adams SG et al. A comprehensive care management program to prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalizations: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2012; 156: 673683.
  • 50
    Serginson JG, Yang IA, Armstrong JG, Cooper DM, Matthiesson AM, Morrison SC et al. Variability in the rate of prescription and cost of domiciliary oxygen therapy in Australia. Med J Aust 2009; 191: 549553.
  • 51
    Moore RP, Berlowitz DJ, Denehy L, Pretto JJ, Brazzale DJ, Sharpe K et al. A randomised trial of domiciliary, ambulatory oxygen in patients with COPD and dyspnoea but without resting hypoxaemia. Thorax 2011; 66: 3237.
  • 52
    Nonoyama ML, Brooks D, Guyatt GH, Goldstein RS. Effect of oxygen on health quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with transient exertional hypoxemia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007; 176: 343349.
  • 53
    McKeon JL, Murree-Allen K, Saunders NA. Supplemental oxygen and quality of sleep in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Thorax 1989; 44: 184188.
  • 54
    Chaouat A, Weitzenblum E, Kessler R, Charpentier C, Ehrhart M, Schott R et al. A randomized trial of nocturnal oxygen therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Eur Respir J 1999; 14: 10021008.
  • 55
    Fletcher EC, Luckett RA, Goodnight-White S, Miller CC, Qian W, Costarangos-Galarza C. A double-blind trial of nocturnal supplemental oxygen for sleep desaturation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a daytime PaO2 above 60 mmHg. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 145: 10701076.
  • 56
    Wijkstra PJ, Lacasse Y, Guyatt GH, Casanova C, Gay PC, Meecham Jones J et al. A meta-analysis of nocturnal non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. Chest 2003; 124: 337343.
  • 57
    McEvoy RD, Pierce RJ, Hillman D, Esterman A, Ellis EE, Catcheside PG et al. Nocturnal non-invasive nasal ventilation in stable hypercapnic COPD: a randomised controlled trial. Thorax 2009; 64: 561566.
  • 58
    Criner GJ. Alternatives to lung transplantation: lung volume reduction for COPD. Clin Chest Med 2011; 32: 379397.
  • 59
    National Emphysema Treatment Trial Research Group. A randomized trial comparing lung-volume-reduction surgery with medical therapy for severe emphysema. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 20592073.
  • 60
    Sciurba FC, Ernst A, Herth FJF, Strange C, Criner GJ, Marquette CH et al. A randomized study of endobronchial valves for advanced emphysema. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 12331244.
  • 61
    Snell G, Herth FJF, Hopkins P, Baker KM, Witt C, Gotfried MH et al. Bronchoscopic thermal vapour ablation therapy in management of heterogenous emphysema. Eur Respir J 2012; 39: 13261333.
  • 62
    Casanova C, Cote C, de Torres JP, Aguirre-Jaime A, Marin JM, Pinto-Plata V et al. Inspiratory to total lung capacity ratio predicts mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Rev Respir Crit Care Med 2005; 171: 591597.
  • 63
    Celli BR, Cote CG, Marin J, Casanova C, Montes de Oca M, Mendez RA et al. The body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea and exercise capacity index in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 10051012.
  • 64
    Curtis JR. Palliative and end-of-life care for patients with severe COPD. Eur Respir J 2008; 32: 796803.