• 1
    Slattery MM, Morrison JJ. Preterm delivery. Lancet 2002; 360:148997.
  • 2
    Romero R, Espinoza J, Kusanovic JP, Gotsch F, Hassan S, Erez O, Chaiworapongsa T, Mazor M. The preterm parturition syndrome. BJOG 2006; 113(Suppl 3):1742.
  • 3
    Romero R, Mazor M, Munoz H, Gomez R, Galasso M, Sherer DM. The preterm labor syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994; 734:41429.
  • 4
    Sykes L, MacIntyre D, Teoh T, Bennett P. Targeting immune activation in the prevention of preterm labour. Eur Obstet Gynecol 2011; 6:1006.
  • 5
    Lindstrom TM, Bennett PR. The role of nuclear factor κB in human labour. Reproduction 2005; 130:56981.
  • 6
    Terzidou V, Lee Y, Lindstrom T, Johnson M, Thornton S, Bennett PR. Regulation of the human oxytocin receptor by nuclear factor-κB and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91:231726.
  • 7
    Allport VC, Pieber D, Slater DM, Newton R, White JO, Bennett PR. Human labour is associated with nuclear factor-κB activity which mediates cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression and is involved with the ‘functional progesterone withdrawal’. Mol Hum Reprod 2001; 7:5816.
  • 8
    Phaneuf S, Europe-Finner GN, Varney M, MacKenzie IZ, Watson SP, Lopez Bernal A. Oxytocin-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in human myometrial cells: involvement of pertussis toxin-sensitive and -insensitive G-proteins. J Endocrinol 1993; 136:497509.
  • 9
    Choi SJ, Oh S, Kim JH, Roh CR. Changes of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in human myometrium before and during term labor. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2007; 132:1828.
  • 10
    Belt AR, Baldassare JJ, Molnar M, Romero R, Hertelendy F. The nuclear transcription factor NF-κB mediates interleukin-1β-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human myometrial cells. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 181:35966.
  • 11
    Kniss DA, Rovin B, Fertel RH, Zimmerman PD. Blockade NF-κB activation prohibits TNF-α-induced cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in ED27 trophoblast-like cells. Placenta 2001; 22:809.
  • 12
    Lindstrom TM, Bennett PR. 15-Deoxy-δ12,14-prostaglandin j2 inhibits interleukin-1β-induced nuclear factor-κB in human amnion and myometrial cells: mechanisms and implications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90:353443.
  • 13
    Pirianov G, Waddington SN, Lindstrom TM, Terzidou V, Mehmet H, Bennett PR. The cyclopentenone 15-deoxy-δ 12,14-prostaglandin J2 delays lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm delivery and reduces mortality in the newborn mouse. Endocrinology 2009; 150:699706.
  • 14
    Berry EB, Keelan JA, Helliwell RJ, Gilmour RS, Mitchell MD. Nanomolar and micromolar effects of 15-deoxy-δ 12,14-prostaglandin J2 on amnion-derived WISH epithelial cells: differential roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ and δ and nuclear factor κB. Mol Pharmacol 2005; 68:16978.
  • 15
    Monneret G, Li H, Vasilescu J, Rokach J, Powell WS. 15-Deoxy-δ 12,14-prostaglandins D2 and J2 are potent activators of human eosinophils. J Immunol 2002; 168:35639.
  • 16
    Sawyer N, Cauchon E, Chateauneuf A, Cruz RP, Nicholson DW, Metters KM, O'Neill GP, Gervais FG. Molecular pharmacology of the human prostaglandin D2 receptor, CRTH2. Br J Pharmacol 2002; 137:116372.
  • 17
    Nagata K, Tanaka K, Ogawa K et al. Selective expression of a novel surface molecule by human Th2 cells in vivo. J Immunol 1999; 162:127886.
  • 18
    Monneret G, Gravel S, Diamond M, Rokach J, Powell WS. Prostaglandin D2 is a potent chemoattractant for human eosinophils that acts via a novel DP receptor. Blood 2001; 98:19428.
  • 19
    Hirai H, Tanaka K, Yoshie O et al. Prostaglandin D2 selectively induces chemotaxis in T helper type 2 cells, eosinophils, and basophils via seven-transmembrane receptor CRTH2. J Exp Med 2001; 193:25561.
  • 20
    Nagata K, Hirai H. The second PGD2 receptor CRTH2: structure, properties, and functions in leukocytes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2003; 69:16977.
  • 21
    Helliwell RJ, Keelan JA, Marvin KW et al. Gestational age-dependent up-regulation of prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS) and production of PGDS-derived antiinflammatory prostaglandins in human placenta. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91:597606.
  • 22
    Xue L, Gyles SL, Wettey FR, Gazi L, Townsend E, Huunter MG, Pettipher R. Prostaglandin D2 causes preferential induction of proinflammatory Th2 cytokine production through an action on chemoattractant receptor-like molecule expressed on Th2 cells. J Immunol 2005; 175:65316.
  • 23
    O'Garra A, Arai N. The molecular basis of T helper 1 and T helper 2 cell differentiation. Trends Cell Biol 2000; 10:54250.
  • 24
    Chaouat G, Assal Meliani A, Martal J, Raghupathy R, Elliott JF, Mosmann T, Wegmann TG. IL-10 prevents naturally occurring fetal loss in the CBA x DBA/2 mating combination, and local defect in IL-10 production in this abortion-prone combination is corrected by in vivo injection of IFN-τ. J Immunol 1995; 154:42618.
  • 25
    Gervais FG, Morello JP, Beaulieu C, Sawyer N, Benis D, Greig G, Melebranche AD, O'Neill GP. Identification of a potent and selective synthetic agonist at the CRTH2 receptor. Mol Pharmacol 2005; 67:18349.
  • 26
    Pinto-Machado J. Categorization of near-term mouse fetuses according to their viability as a tool for developmental toxicity screening. Biol Neonate 1990; 57:549.
  • 27
    Cossette C, Walsh SE, Kim S, Lee GJ, Lawson JA, Bellone S, Rokach J, Powell WS. Agonist and antagonist effects of 15R-prostaglandin (PG) D2 and 11-methylene-PGD2 on human eosinophils and basophils. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2007; 320:1739.
  • 28
    Wang W, Yen H, Chen CH, Jasani N, Soni R, Koscica K, Reznik SE. Prevention of inflammation-associated preterm birth by knockdown of the endothelin-1-matrix metalloproteinase-1 pathway. Mol Med 2010; 16:50512.
  • 29
    Shiratori Y, Hikiba Y, Mawet E et al. Modulation of KC/gro protein (interleukin-8 related protein in rodents) release from hepatocytes by biologically active mediators. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994; 203:1398403.
  • 30
    Tanaka K, Hirai H, Takano S, Nakamura M, Nagata K. Effects of prostaglandin D2 on helper T cell functions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004; 316:100914.
  • 31
    Yoshimura-Uchiyama C, Iikura M, Yamaguchi M et al. Differential modulation of human basophil functions through prostaglandin D2 receptors DP and chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells/DP2. Clin Exp Allergy 2004; 34:128390.
  • 32
    Monneret G, Cossette C, Gravel S, Rokach J, Powell WS. 15R-methyl-prostaglandin D2 is a potent and selective CRTH2/DP2 receptor agonist in human eosinophils. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003; 304:34955.
  • 33
    Gervais FG, Sawyer N, Stocco R et al. Pharmacological characterization of MK-7246, a potent and selective CRTH2 (chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T-helper type 2 cells) antagonist. Mol Pharmacol 2011; 79:6976.
  • 34
    Abe H, Takeshita T, Nagata K et al. Molecular cloning, chromosome mapping and characterization of the mouse CRTH2 gene, a putative member of the leukocyte chemoattractant receptor family. Gene 1999; 227:717.
  • 35
    Hata AN, Lybrand TP, Breyer RM. Identification of determinants of ligand binding affinity and selectivity in the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2. J Biol Chem 2005; 280:3244251.
  • 36
    Higuchi S, Kobayashi M, Yoshikawa Y, Tsuneyama K, Fukami T, Nakajima M, Yokoi T. IL-4 mediates dicloxacillin-induced liver injury in mice. Toxicol Lett 2011; 200:13945.
  • 37
    Gosset P, Bureau F, Angeli V, Pichavant M, Faveeuw C, Tonnel AB, Trottein F. Prostaglandin D2 affects the maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells: consequence on the polarization of naive Th cells. J Immunol 2003; 170:494352.
  • 38
    Yamamoto Y, Otani S, Hirai H et al. Dual functions of prostaglandin D2 in murine contact hypersensitivity via DP and CRTH2. Am J Pathol 2011; 179:30214.
  • 39
    Hata AN, Zent R, Breyer MD, Breyer RM. Expression and molecular pharmacology of the mouse CRTH2 receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003; 306:46370.
  • 40
    Kliewer SA, Lenhard JM, Willson TM, Patel I, Morris DC, Lehmann JM. A prostaglandin J2 metabolite binds peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and promotes adipocyte differentiation. Cell 1995; 83:8139.
  • 41
    Sykes L, Lee Y, Khanjani S, MacIntyre DA, Yap XJ, Ponnampalam S, Teoh TG, Bennett PR. Chemoattractant receptor homologous to the T Helper 2 Cell (CRTH2) is not expressed in human amniocytes and myocytes. PLoS ONE 2012; 7:e50734.
  • 42
    Michimata T, Ogasawara MS, Tsuda H et al. Distributions of endometrial NK cells, B cells, T cells, and Th2/Tc2 cells fail to predict pregnancy outcome following recurrent abortion. Am J Reprod Immunol 2002; 47:196202.
  • 43
    Saito S, Tsuda H, Michimata T. Prostaglandin D2 and reproduction. Am J Reprod Immunol 2002; 47:295302.
  • 44
    Pointis G, Rao B, Latreille MT, Mignot TM, Cedard L. Progesterone levels in the circulating blood of the ovarian and uterine veins during gestation in the mouse. Biol Reprod 1981; 24:8015.
  • 45
    Cella M, Farina MG, Dominguez Rubio AP, Di Girolamo G, Ribeiro ML, Franchi AM. Dual effect of nitric oxide on uterine prostaglandin synthesis in a murine model of preterm labour. Br J Pharmacol 2010; 161:84455.
  • 46
    Cook JL, Zaragoza DB, Sung DH, Olson DM. Expression of myometrial activation and stimulation genes in a mouse model of preterm labor: myometrial activation, stimulation, and preterm labor. Endocrinology 2000; 141:171828.
  • 47
    Lee YS, Macintyre DA, Pirianov G, Herbert B, Terzidou V, Johnson MR, Bennett PR. Inhibition of Ap-1 delays LPS-induced preterm labour and improves pup outcome in the murine model. Reprod Sci 2012; 19:0164.
  • 48
    Bachschmid M, Schildknecht S, Ullrich V. Redox regulation of vascular prostanoid synthesis by the nitric oxide-superoxide system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 338:53642.
  • 49
    Beharka AA, Wu D, Serafini M, Meydani SN. Mechanism of vitamin E inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity in macrophages from old mice: role of peroxynitrite. Free Radic Biol Med 2002; 32:50311.
  • 50
    Landino LM, Crews BC, Timmons MD, Morrow JD, Marnett LJ. Peroxynitrite, the coupling product of nitric oxide and superoxide, activates prostaglandin biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996; 93:1506974.
  • 51
    Aisemberg J, Vercelli C, Billi S et al. Nitric oxide mediates prostaglandins' deleterious effect on lipopolysaccharide-triggered murine fetal resorption. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007; 104:75349.
  • 52
    Vallabhapurapu S, Karin M. Regulation and function of NF-κB transcription factors in the immune system. Annu Rev Immunol 2009; 27:693733.
  • 53
    Traenckner EB, Pahl HL, Henkel T, Schmidt KN, Wilk S, Baeuerle PA. Phosphorylation of human I κB-α on serines 32 and 36 controls I κB-α proteolysis and NF-κB activation in response to diverse stimuli. EMBO J 1995; 14:287683.
  • 54
    DiDonato J, Mercurio F, Rosette C, Wu-Li J, Suyang H, Ghosh S, Karin M. Mapping of the inducible IκB phosphorylation sites that signal its ubiquitination and degradation. Mol Cell Biol 1996; 16:1295304.
  • 55
    Murphy SP, Hanna NN, Fast LD, Shaw SK, Berg G, Padbury JF, Romero R, Sharma S. Evidence for participation of uterine natural killer cells in the mechanisms responsible for spontaneous preterm labor and delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009; 200:308e1.
  • 56
    Murphy SP, Fast LD, Hanna NN, Sharma S. Uterine NK cells mediate inflammation-induced fetal demise in IL-10-null mice. J Immunol 2005; 175:408490.
  • 57
    Michimata T, Tsuda H, Sakai M, Fujimura M, Nagata K, Makamura M, Saito S. Accumulation of CRTH2-positive T-helper 2 and T-cytotoxic 2 cells at implantation sites of human decidua in a prostaglandin D2-mediated manner. Mol Hum Reprod 2002; 8:1817.
  • 58
    Gervais FG, Cruz RP, Chateauneuf A, Gale S, Sawyer N, Nantel F, Metters KM, O'Neill GP. Selective modulation of chemokinesis, degranulation, and apoptosis in eosinophils through the PGD2 receptors CRTH2 and DP. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 108:9828.
  • 59
    He R, Oyoshi MK, Wang JY, Hodge MR, Jin H, Geha RS. The prostaglandin D receptor CRTH2 is important for allergic skin inflammation after epicutaneous antigen challenge. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010; 126:78490.
  • 60
    Oiwa M, Satoh T, Watanabe M, Niwa H, Hirai H, Nakamura M, Yokozeki H. CRTH2-dependent, STAT6-independent induction of cedar pollen dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy 2008; 38:135766.
  • 61
    Boehme SA, Franz-Bacon K, Chen EP, Ly TW, Kawakami Y, Bacon KB. Murine bone marrow-derived mast cells express chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T-helper class 2 cells (CRTh2). Int Immunol 2009; 21:62132.
  • 62
    Lukacs NW, Berlin AA, Franz-Bacon K et al. CRTH2 antagonism significantly ameliorates airway hyperreactivity and downregulates inflammation-induced genes in a mouse model of airway inflammation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2008; 295:L76779.
  • 63
    Spik I, Brenuchon C, Angeli V, Staumont D, Fleury S, Capron M, Trottein F, Dombrowicz D. Activation of the prostaglandin D2 receptor DP2/CRTH2 increases allergic inflammation in mouse. J Immunol 2005; 174:37038.
  • 64
    Boehme SA, Franz-Bacon K, Chen EP, Sasik R, Sprague LJ, Ly TW, Hardiman G, Bacon KB. A small molecule CRTH2 antagonist inhibits FITC-induced allergic cutaneous inflammation. Int Immunol 2009; 21:8193.
  • 65
    Robertson SA, Skinner RJ, Care AS. Essential role for IL-10 in resistance to lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm labor in mice. J Immunol 2006; 177:488896.
  • 66
    Cao J, Shayibuzhati M, Tajima T, Kitazawa T, Taneike T. In vitro pharmacological characterization of the prostanoid receptor population in the non-pregnant porcine myometrium. Eur J Pharmacol 2002; 442:11523.
  • 67
    Crane LH, Martin L. In vivo myometrial activity during early pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat. Reprod Fertil Dev 1991; 3:23344.
  • 68
    Okabe K, Inoue Y, Kawarabayashi T, Kajiya H, Okamoto F, Soeda H. Physiological significance of hyperpolarization-activated inward currents (Ih) in smooth muscle cells from the circular layers of pregnant rat myometrium. Pflugers Arch 1999; 439:7685.
  • 69
    Nesheim BI. Effect of noradrenaline and isoprenaline on the circular and longitudinal muscle of the oestrogen dominated rabbit uterus. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 1972; 31:296304.
  • 70
    Merlino AA, Welsh TN, Tan H, Yi LJ, Cannon V, Mercer BM, Mesiano S. Nuclear progesterone receptors in the human pregnancy myometrium: evidence that parturition involves functional progesterone withdrawal mediated by increased expression of progesterone receptor-A. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92:192733.
  • 71
    Bengtsson B, Chow EM, Marshall JM. Calcium dependency of pregnant rat myometrium: comparison of circular and longitudinal muscle. Biol Reprod 1984; 30:86978.
  • 72
    Tuross N, Mahtani M, Marshall JM. Comparison of effects of oxytocin and prostaglandin F2-α on circular and longitudinal myometrium from the pregnant rat. Biol Reprod 1987; 37:34855.
  • 73
    Osa T, Katase T. Physiological comparison of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the pregnant rat uterus. Jpn J Physiol 1975; 25:15364.
  • 74
    Kuriyama H, Suzuki H. Changes in electrical properties of rat myometrium during gestation and following hormonal treatments. J Physiol 1976; 260:31533.
  • 75
    Sykes L, Kandola M, Teoh T, Bennett PR. The EP2 agonist Butaprost inhibits human myometrial contractility, but the EP4 agonist compound 1F does not. Reprod Sci 2011; 18:135A.
  • 76
    Palliser HK, Hirst JJ, Ooi GT, Rice GE, Dellios NL, Escalona RM, Parkington HC, Young IR. Prostaglandin E and F receptor expression and myometrial sensitivity at labor onset in the sheep. Biol Reprod 2005; 72:93743.