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Keywords:

  • autoimmunity;
  • immunotherapeutics;
  • inflammation

Summary

ADP-ribosylation is the addition of one or more (up to some hundreds) ADP-ribose moieties to acceptor proteins. There are two major families of enzymes that catalyse this reaction: extracellular ADP-ribosyl-transferases (ARTs), which are bound to the cell membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor or are secreted, and poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerases (PARPs), which are present in the cell nucleus and/or cytoplasm. Recent findings revealed a wide immunological role for ADP-ribosylating enzymes. ARTs, by sensing extracellular NAD concentration, can act as danger detectors. PARP-1, the prototypical representative of the PARP family, known to protect cells from genomic instability, is involved in the development of inflammatory responses and several forms of cell death. PARP-1 also plays a role in adaptive immunity by modulating the ability of dendritic cells to stimulate T cells or by directly affecting the differentiation and functions of T and B cells. Both PARP-1 and PARP-14 (CoaSt6) knockout mice were described to display reduced T helper type 2 cell differentiation and allergic responses. Our recent findings showed that PARP-1 is involved in the differentiation of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, suggesting a role for PARP-1 in tolerance induction. Also ARTs regulate Treg cell homeostasis by promoting Treg cell apoptosis during inflammatory responses. PARP inhibitors ameliorate immune-mediated diseases in several experimental models, including rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and allergy. Together these findings show that ADP-ribosylating enzymes, in particular PARP-1, play a pivotal role in the regulation of immune responses and may represent a good target for new therapeutic approaches in immune-mediated diseases.