• 1
    Petty RE, Southwood TR, Manners P et al. International League of Associations for Rheumatology classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: second revision, Edmonton, 2001. J Rheumatol 2004; 31:3902.
  • 2
    Ravelli A, Martini A. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Lancet 2007; 369:76778.
  • 3
    Mellins ED, Macaubas C, Grom AA. Pathogenesis of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: some answers, more questions. Nat Rev Rheumatol 2011; 7:41626.
  • 4
    Packham JC, Hall MA. Long-term follow-up of 246 adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: functional outcome. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2002; 41:142835.
  • 5
    Abinun M, Flood TJ, Cant AJ et al. Autologous T cell depleted haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with severe juvenile idiopathic arthritis in the UK (2000–2007). Mol Immunol 2009; 47:4651.
  • 6
    de Kleer I, Vastert B, Klein M et al. Autologous stem cell transplantation for autoimmunity induces immunologic self-tolerance by reprogramming autoreactive T cells and restoring the CD4+ CD25+ immune regulatory network. Blood 2006; 107:1696702.
  • 7
    de Kleer IM, Brinkman DM, Ferster A et al. Autologous stem cell transplantation for refractory juvenile idiopathic arthritis: analysis of clinical effects, mortality, and transplant related morbidity. Ann Rheum Dis 2004; 63:131826.
  • 8
    Wulffraat N, van Royen A, Bierings M, Vossen J, Kuis W. Autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation in four patients with refractory juvenile chronic arthritis. Lancet 1999; 353:5503.
  • 9
    Wulffraat NM, Brinkman D, Ferster A et al. Long-term follow-up of autologous stem cell transplantation for refractory juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Bone Marrow Transplant 2003; 32(Suppl 1):S614.
  • 10
    Brinkman DM, de Kleer IM, ten Cate R et al. Autologous stem cell transplantation in children with severe progressive systemic or polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: long-term follow-up of a prospective clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 56:241021.
  • 11
    Fassas A, Passweg JR, Anagnostopoulos A et al. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple sclerosis. A retrospective multicenter study. J Neurol 2002; 249:108897.
  • 12
    Burt RK, Georganas C, Schroeder J et al. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis: sustained response in two of four patients. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42:22815.
  • 13
    van Laar JM, Verburg RJ, Fibbe WE, Breedveld FC. Intensive immunosuppression and autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis: the Leiden experience. J Rheumatol Suppl 2001; 64:257.
  • 14
    Song XN, Lv HY, Sun LX, Meng JB, Wang JK, Zhang JQ, Chang YJ. Autologous stem cell transplantation for systemic lupus erythematosus: report of efficacy and safety at 7 years of follow-up in 17 patients. Transplant Proc 2011; 43:19247.
  • 15
    Wedderburn LR, Abinun M, Palmer P, Foster HE. Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arch Dis Child 2003; 88:2015.
  • 16
    Sykes M, Nikolic B. Treatment of severe autoimmune disease by stem-cell transplantation. Nature 2005; 435:6207.
  • 17
    Muraro PA, Douek DC, Packer A et al. Thymic output generates a new and diverse TCR repertoire after autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple sclerosis patients. J Exp Med 2005; 201:80516.
  • 18
    Thiel A, Alexander T, Schmidt CA et al. Direct assessment of thymic reactivation after autologous stem cell transplantation. Acta Haematol 2008; 119:227.
  • 19
    Darlington PJ, Touil T, Doucet JS et al. Diminished Th17 (not Th1) responses underlie multiple sclerosis disease abrogation after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ann Neurol 2013; 73:34154.
  • 20
    Bomberger C, Singh-Jairam M, Rodey G, Guerriero A, Yeager AM, Fleming WH, Holland HK, Waller EK. Lymphoid reconstitution after autologous PBSC transplantation with FACS-sorted CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. Blood 1998; 91:2588600.
  • 21
    Wedderburn LR, Jeffery R, White H, Patel A, Varsani H, Linch D, Murray K, Woo P. Autologous stem cell transplantation for paediatric-onset polyarteritis nodosa: changes in autoimmune phenotype in the context of reduced diversity of the T- and B-cell repertoires, and evidence for reversion from the CD45RO+ to RA+ phenotype. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2001; 40:1299307.
  • 22
    Koehne G, Zeller W, Stockschlaeder M, Zander AR. Phenotype of lymphocyte subsets after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1997; 19:14956.
  • 23
    Pannetier C, Cochet M, Darche S, Casrouge A, Zoller M, Kourilsky P. The sizes of the CDR3 hypervariable regions of the murine T-cell receptor β chains vary as a function of the recombined germ-line segments. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993; 90:431923.
  • 24
    Gorski J, Yassai M, Zhu X, Kissela B, Kissella B, Keever C, Flomenberg N. Circulating T cell repertoire complexity in normal individuals and bone marrow recipients analyzed by CDR3 size spectratyping. Correlation with immune status. J Immunol 1994; 152:510919.
  • 25
    de Kleer IM, Kamphuis SM, Rijkers GT et al. The spontaneous remission of juvenile idiopathic arthritis is characterized by CD30+ T cells directed to human heat-shock protein 60 capable of producing the regulatory cytokine interleukin-10. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48:200110.
  • 26
    Prakken AB, van Eden W, Rijkers GT, Kuis W, Toebes EA, de Graeff-Meeder ER, van der Zee R, Zegers BJ. Autoreactivity to human heat-shock protein 60 predicts disease remission in oligoarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39:182632.
  • 27
    van Eden W, van der Zee R, Prakken B. Heat-shock proteins induce T-cell regulation of chronic inflammation. Nat Rev Immunol 2005; 5:31830.
  • 28
    Mackall CL, Fleisher TA, Brown MR et al. Distinctions between CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell regenerative pathways result in prolonged T-cell subset imbalance after intensive chemotherapy. Blood 1997; 89:37007.
  • 29
    Roord ST, de Jager W, Boon L, Wulffraat N, Martens A, Prakken B, van Wijk F. Autologous bone marrow transplantation in autoimmune arthritis restores immune homeostasis through CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Blood 2008; 111:523341.