From lipid second messengers to molecular motors: microtubule-organizing center reorientation in T cells



In T lymphocytes, polarization of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) to the immunological synapse enables the directional secretion of cytokines, cytolytic factors, and other soluble molecules toward the antigen-presenting cell. This is likely to be crucial for maintaining the specificity of T-cell effector responses. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of MTOC reorientation in T cells, focusing first on the importance of diacylglycerol and protein kinase C isozymes and then on the molecular motor proteins that function downstream to drive MTOC movement.