• infections;
  • transplantation tolerance;
  • innate immunity;
  • T and B cells;
  • alloreactivity


Much progress has been made toward understanding the mechanistic basis of transplantation tolerance in experimental models, which implicates clonal deletion of alloreactive T and B cells, induction of cell-intrinsic hyporesponsiveness, and dominant regulatory cells mediating infectious tolerance and linked suppression. Despite encouraging success in the laboratory, achieving tolerance in the clinic remains challenging, although the basis for these challenges is beginning to be understood. Heterologous memory alloreactive T cells generated by infections prior to transplantation have been shown to be a critical barrier to tolerance induction. Furthermore, infections at the time of transplantation and tolerance induction provide a pro-inflammatory milieu that alters the stability and function of regulatory T cells as well as the activation requirements and differentiation of effector T cells. Thus, infections can result in enhanced alloreactivity, resistance to tolerance induction, and destabilization of the established tolerance state. We speculate that these experimental findings have relevance to the clinic, where infections have been associated with allograft rejection and may be a causal event precipitating the loss of grafts after long periods of stable operational tolerance. Understanding the mechanisms by which infections prevent and destabilize tolerance can lead to therapies that promote stable life-long tolerance in transplant recipients.