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Data S1. Eligibility criteria for school districts, schools, and classrooms.

Data S2. Details of data collection process and problems, and related changes in study design.

Data S3. Environmental and student covariates.

Data S4. Estimation of selected economic benefits from reduced school illness absence.

Data S5. Calculations and data sources related to increased costs from energy use for specific changes in school VRs.

Data S6. Results: estimated benefits and costs of increased VRs in elementary schools.

Data S7. Considerations for comparison of current findings to findings of Shendell et al. (2004).

Figure S1. Average annual ventilation rates in naturally ventilation classrooms – an example of why annual average ventilation rates may be a poor proxy for daily exposure in these classrooms.

Table S1. Current ventilation standards per State of California.

Table S2. Current ASHRAE ventilation rate requirements (ASHRAE, 2010, p. 12).

Table S3. Unadjusted IRR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from zero-inflated negative binomial models for association between classroom ventilation rate (VR) metrics and daily classroom proportion of illness absence, per increase of 1 l/s-person VR in observed range of 1–20 l/s-person.

Table S4. Alternate adjusted IRR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from zero-inflated negative binomial models for association between single-day classroom ventilation rate (VR) and period-averaged daily classroom proportion of illness absence, per increase of 1 l/s-person VR in observed range of 1–20 l/s-person (note – none of models producing these estimates converged, so estimates may not be meaningful).

Table S5. Predicted proportion of illness absence at specified outdoor air ventilation rates, based on adjusted models using 7-day averaged ventilation rates, in three California climate zones.

Table S6. Estimated losses in revenue to school districts.

Table S7. Estimates of the energy use and costs for cooling and heating the ventilation air provided to classrooms in California.

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