Indoor aerosols: from personal exposure to risk assessment

Authors

  • L. Morawska,

    Corresponding author
    1. International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
    2. Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
    • L. Morawska

      International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health

      Queensland University of Technology

      2 George St, Brisbane, 4001 Qld

      Australia

      Tel.: +61-7-3138-2616

      Fax: +61-3138-9079

      e-mail: l.morawska@qut.edu.au

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  • A. Afshari,

    1. Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute/Aalborg University, Dr. Neergaards Vej, Denmark
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  • G. N. Bae,

    1. Center for Environment, Health and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea
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  • G. Buonanno,

    1. International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
    2. Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino, FR, Italy
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  • C. Y. H. Chao,

    1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong
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  • O. Hänninen,

    1. Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland
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  • W. Hofmann,

    1. Department of Materials Research and Physics, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
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  • C. Isaxon,

    1. Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
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  • E. R. Jayaratne,

    1. International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
    2. Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
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  • P. Pasanen,

    1. Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
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  • T. Salthammer,

    1. International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
    2. Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Fraunhofer WKI, Braunschweig, Germany
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  • M. Waring,

    1. Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
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  • A. Wierzbicka

    1. Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
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Abstract

Motivated by growing considerations of the scale, severity, and risks associated with human exposure to indoor particulate matter, this work reviewed existing literature to: (i) identify state-of-the-art experimental techniques used for personal exposure assessment; (ii) compare exposure levels reported for domestic/school settings in different countries (excluding exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and particulate matter from biomass cooking in developing countries); (iii) assess the contribution of outdoor background vs indoor sources to personal exposure; and (iv) examine scientific understanding of the risks posed by personal exposure to indoor aerosols. Limited studies assessing integrated daily residential exposure to just one particle size fraction, ultrafine particles, show that the contribution of indoor sources ranged from 19% to 76%. This indicates a strong dependence on resident activities, source events and site specificity, and highlights the importance of indoor sources for total personal exposure. Further, it was assessed that 10–30% of the total burden of disease from particulate matter exposure was due to indoor-generated particles, signifying that indoor environments are likely to be a dominant environmental factor affecting human health. However, due to challenges associated with conducting epidemiological assessments, the role of indoor-generated particles has not been fully acknowledged, and improved exposure/risk assessment methods are still needed, together with a serious focus on exposure control.

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