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Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations and resulting exposure in homes in California: relationships among passive air, surface wipe and dust concentrations, and temporal variability

Authors

  • D. H. Bennett,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    • D. H. Bennett

      Department of Public Health Sciences

      MS1C, University of California

      One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA

      Tel.: +1-530-754-8282

      Fax: +1-530-752-3239

      e-mail: dhbennett@ucdavis.edu

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  • R. E. Moran,

    1. Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
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  • X. (May) Wu,

    1. Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
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  • N. S. Tulve,

    1. Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
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  • M. S. Clifton,

    1. Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
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  • M. Colón,

    1. Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
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  • W. Weathers,

    1. Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
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  • A. Sjödin,

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • R. Jones,

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • I. Hertz-Picciotto

    1. Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
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Abstract

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in furniture foam, electronics, and other home furnishings. A field study was conducted that enrolled 139 households from California, which has had more stringent flame retardant requirements than other countries and areas. The study collected passive air, floor and indoor window surface wipes, and dust samples (investigator collected using an HVS3 and vacuum cleaner) in each home. PentaBDE and BDE209 were detected in the majority of the dust samples and many floor wipe samples, but the detection in air and window wipe samples was relatively low. Concentrations of each PBDE congener in different indoor environmental media were moderately correlated, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.42 and 0.68. Correlation coefficients with blood levels were up to 0.65 and varied between environmental media and age group. Both investigator-collected dust and floor wipes were correlated with serum levels for a wide range of congeners. These two sample types also had a relatively high fraction of samples with adequate mass for reliable quantification. In 42 homes, PBDE levels measured in the same environmental media in the same home 1 year apart were statistically correlated (correlation coefficients: 0.57–0.90), with the exception of BDE209 which was not well correlated longitudinally.

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