• Adolescent;
  • Family Smoking;
  • Friends Smoking;
  • Smoking Behaviour;
  • The Presence of Smoking Teachers


Smoking tobacco is a global health problem, and this study highlights adolescent smoking in Taiwan. Smoking was completely banned on campuses under the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act and School Health Regulations. Few have investigated the association between personnel smoking/school smoking policies and adolescent smoking in Taiwan. The smoking rate has gradually increased for senior high school students in Taiwan from 10.7% in 1994 to 14.7% in 2011.


This study examined the influence of family and friends' smoking on the association between the presence of teachers smoking and each stage of adolescents' smoking behaviour.


A cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine high schools (n = 921). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between smoking stage, father smoking, mother smoking, sibling smoking, friends smoking and the presence of smoking teachers.


After adjusting for gender, school type and grade, fathers', siblings' and friends' smoking were significantly associated with adolescents' ever and current smoking behaviours, but mothers' smoking was only associated with adolescents' current smoking behaviours. Friends' smoking was strongly associated with being a smoker. While there was an interaction between friends' smoking and the presence of smoking teachers on current smoking behaviours indicating the effect of the presence of smoking teachers was increased when friends did not smoke.


The results suggest that teachers smoking on school may increase the likelihood of being a current smoker as their friends do not smoke. Family and friends smoking are associated with adolescent smoking.


The Taiwanese government has regulated a comprehensive smoking ban in schools to prohibit both student and staff smoking on all school premises. To achieve this, schools should make tobacco control communication efforts. Nurses could address the combined influence of family and friends as well as the effect of school smoking restrictions to help prevent adolescents from smoking.