• 1
    Leder K, Sundararajan V, Weld L, Pandey P, Brown G, Torresi J. GeoSentinel Surveillance Group Respiratory tract infections in travelers: a review of the GeoSentinel surveillance network. Clin Infect Dis2003; 36:399406.
  • 2
    Marti F, Steffen R, Mutsch M. Influenza vaccine: a travelers’ vaccine?Expert Rev Vaccines2008; 7:679687.
  • 3
    Gautret P, Schlagenhauf P, Gaudart J et al. ; GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Multicenter EuroTravNet/Geo. Sentinel study of travel-related infectious diseases in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:17831790.
  • 4
    Mutsch M, Tavernini M, Marx A et al. Influenza virus infection in travelers to tropical and subtropical countries. Clin Infect Dis2005; 40:12821287.
  • 5
    Wilder-Smith A (2006) Tourism and SARS; in Wilks J, Pendergast D, Leggat P (eds): Tourism in Turbulent Times: Towards Safe Experiences for Visitors. London: Elsevier, 2006; 5362.
  • 6
    Brownstein JS, Wolfe CJ, Mandl KD. Empirical evidence for the effect of airline travel on the inter-regional influenza spread in the United States. PLoS Med2006; 3:18261835.
  • 7
    Khan K, Arino J, Hu W et al. Spread of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus via global airline transportation. N Engl J Med2009; 361:212214.
  • 8
    Goubar A, Bitar D, Cao WC, Feng D, Fang LQ, Desenclos JC. An approach to estimate the number of SARS cases imported by international air travel. Epidemiol Infect2009; 137:10191031.
  • 9
    Boggild AK, Castelli F, Gautret P et al. Vaccine-preventable diseases in returned international travelers: results from the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Vaccine2010; 28:73897395.
  • 10
    Yanni EA, Marano N, Han P et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of US travelers to Asia regarding seasonal influenza and H5N1 avian influenza prevention measures. J Travel Med2010; 17:374381.
  • 11
    Leggat PA. Risk assessment in travel medicine. Travel Med Infect Dis2006; 4:127134.
  • 12
    Cooper DL, Smith GE, Edmunds WJ, Joseph C, Gerard E, George RC. The contribution of respiratory pathogens to the seasonality of NHS direct calls. J Infect2007; 55:240248.
  • 13
    Shek LP, Lee BW. Epidemiology and seasonality of respiratory tract virus infections in the tropics. Paediatr Respir Rev2003; 4:105111.
  • 14
    Tang JW, Ngai KL, Lam WY, Chan PK. Seasonality of influenza A(H3N2) virus: a Hong Kong perspective (1997–2006). PLoS ONE2008; 3:e2768.
  • 15
    Moura FE. Influenza in the tropics. Curr Opin Infect Dis2010; 23:415420.
  • 16
    Leo YS, Lye DC, Chow A. Influenza in the tropics. Lancet Infect Dis2009; 9:457458.
  • 17
    Lowen A, Palese P. Transmission of influenza virus in temperate zones is predominantly by aerosol, in the tropics by contact: a hypothesis. PLoS Curr2009; 1:RRN1002.
  • 18
    Carrat F, Flahault A. Influenza vaccine: the challenge of antigenic drift. Vaccine2007; 25:68526862.
  • 19
    de Jong JC, Beyer WE, Palache AM, Rimmelzwaan GF, Osterhaus AD. Mismatch between the 1997/1998 influenza vaccine and the major epidemic A(H3N2) virus strain as the cause of an inadequate vaccine-induced antibody response to this strain in the elderly. J Med Virol2000; 61:9499.
  • 20
    Moura FE, Perdigão AC, Siqueira MM. Seasonality of influenza in the tropics: a distinct pattern in northeastern Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg2009; 81:180183.
  • 21
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Use of northern hemisphere influenza vaccines by travelers to the southern hemisphere. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep2009; 58:312.
  • 22
    Rashid H, Shafi S, Haworth E et al. Influenza vaccine in Hajj pilgrims: policy issues from field studies. Vaccine2008; 26:48094812.
  • 23
    Rashid H, Shafi S, Haworth E et al. Viral respiratory infections at the Hajj. Comparison between UK and Saudi pilgrims. Clin Microbiol Infect2008; 14:569574.
  • 24
    Alborzi A, Aelami MH, Ziyaeyan M et al. Viral etiology of acute respiratory infections among Iranian Hajj pilgrims 2006. J Travel Med2009; 16:239242.
  • 25
    Asklin H, Rombo L. Influenza in travellers. Curr Opin Infect Dis2010; 23:421425.
  • 26
    World Health Organization. International travel and health. 2010 Available at (Accessed 4 October 2010.)
  • 27
    World Health Organization. World now at the start of 2009 influenza pandemic. Available at (Accessed 4 October 2010.)
  • 28
    National Travel Health Network and Centre (2009) Clinical updates: pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza: update 21: current status of the pandemic. Available at (Accessed 4 October 2010.)
  • 29
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep2008; 57 (No. RR-7): 160.
  • 30
    Aoki FY, Macleod MD, Paggiaro P et al. Early administration of oral oseltamivir increases the benefits of influenza treatment. J Antimicrob Chemother2003; 51:123129.
  • 31
    Sheeran P, Conner M, Norman P. Can the theory of planned behaviour explain patterns of health behavior change?Health Psychol2001; 20:1219.
  • 32
    Ajzen I, Fishbein M. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1980.
  • 33
    Fogarty AS, Holland K, Imison M, Blood RW, Chapman S, Holding S. Communicating uncertainty – how Australian television reported H1N1 risk in 2009: a content analysis. BMC Public Health2011; 11:181.
  • 34
    Martin T. [Pandemic as a communication challenge for the governmental authorities-an overview of the governmental public relations measures for the new influenza (“swine flu”). Basic communication features]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz2010; 53:13041307. German.
  • 35
    Rubin GJ, Potts HW, Michie S. The impact of communications about swine flu (influenza A H1N1v) on public responses to the outbreak: results from 36 national telephone surveys in the UK. Health Technol Assess2010; 14:183266.
  • 36
    Simonsen KA, Hunskaar S, Wensaas KA et al. Influenza-like illness in general practice in Norway: clinical course and attitudes towards vaccination and preventive measures during the 2009 pandemic. Fam Pract. 29:139146.
  • 37
    Liao Q, Cowling BJ, Lam WW, Fielding R. Factors affecting intention to receive and self-reported receipt of 2009 pandemic (H1N1) vaccine in Hong Kong: a longitudinal study. PLoS ONE2011; 6:e17713.
  • 38
    Mitchell T, Dee DL, Phares CR et al. Non-pharmaceutical interventions during an outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection at a large public university, April-May 2009. Clin Infect Dis2011; 52(Suppl 1):S138S145.
  • 39
    Suess T, Remschmidt C, Schink S et al. Facemasks and intensified hand hygiene in a German household trial during the2009/2010 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic: adherence and tolerability in children and adults. Epidemiol Infect2011; 139:18951901.
  • 40
    Blank PR, Freiburghaus AU, Schwenkglenks M, Szucs TD. Trends in influenza vaccination coverage rates in the United Kingdom over six seasons from 2001-2 to 2006-7. Euro Surveill2008; 13:17.
  • 41
    Pfeil A, Mutsch M, Hatz C, Szucs TD. A cross-sectional survey to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding seasonal influenza vaccination among European travelers to resource-limited destinations. BMC Public Health2010; 10:402408.
  • 42
    Helfenberger S, Tschopp A, Robyn L, Hatz C, Schlagenhauf P. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of business travelers regarding influenza and the use of antiviral medication. J Travel Med2010; 17:367373.
  • 43
    Smith JR, Rayner CR, Donner B, Wollenhaupt M, Klumpp K, Dutkowski R. Oseltamivir in seasonal, pandemic, and avian influenza: a comprehensive review of 10-years clinical experience. Adv Ther2011; 28:927959.
  • 44
    Antiviral drugs in influenza: an adjunct to vaccination in some situations. Prescrire Int2006; 15:2130.
  • 45
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Infectious disease. Antiviral agents for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza. Ann Emerg Med2011; 58:299303; discussion 303–304.
  • 46
    Marathe A, Lewis B, Barrett C et al. Comparing effectiveness of top-down and bottom-up strategies in containing influenza. PLoS ONE2011; 6:e25149.
  • 47
    Bannister B, Hatz C, Toovey S, Price R, Zuckerman JN. The role of standby emergency medication for falciparum malaria: current opinion. Travel Med Infect Dis2004; 2:119126.
  • 48
    Adisasmito W, Chan PK, Lee N et al. Effectiveness of antiviral treatment in human influenza A(H5N1) infections: analysis of a Global Patient Registry. J Infect Dis2010; 202:11541160.
  • 49
    Gasink LB, Linkin DR, Fishman NO, Bilker WB, Weiner MG, Lautenbach E. Stockpiling drugs for an avian influenza outbreak: examining the surge in oseltamivir prescriptions during heightened media coverage of the potential for a worldwide pandemic. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol2009; 30:370376.
  • 50
    Aro AR, Vartti AM, Schreck M, Turtianen P, Uutela A. Willingness to take travel-related health risks-a study among Finnish tourists in Asia during the avian Influenza outbreak. Int J Behav Med2009; 16:6873.
  • 51
    Fiore AE, Fry A, Shay D, Gubareva L, Bresee JS, Uyeki TM; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Antiviral agents for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR January 21, 2011 / 60(RR01); 124.