• 1
    Brammer L, Budd A, Cox N. Seasonal and pandemic influenza surveillance considerations for constructing multicomponent systems. Influenza Other Respi Viruses 2009; 3:5158.
  • 2
    M’ikanatha NM, Lynfield R, Van Beneden CA, de Valk H. Infectious Disease Surveillance, 1st edn. Malden, MA, USA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007.
  • 3
    DeStefano F. Opportunities for population-based clinical research using data from managed care organizations; in Davis J (ed.): Managed Care Systems and Emerging Infections. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000; 1618.
  • 4
    Monto AS, Ohmit SE, Margulies JR, Talsma A. Medical practice-based influenza surveillance: viral prevalence and assessment of morbidity. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 141:502506.
  • 5
    Health Protection Agency. Epidemiological report of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in the UK April 2009–May 2010. Available at: (Accessed 09 July 2012).
  • 6
    Chernick MR. Bootstrap Methods: A Practioner’s Guide. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999.
  • 7
    Carrat F, Vergu E, Ferguson NM et al. Time lines of infection and disease in human influenza: a review of volunteer challenge studies. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167:775785.
  • 8
    Bell DM, World Health Organization Writing G. Non-pharmaceutical interventions for pandemic influenza, national and community measures. Emerg Infect Dis 2006; 12:8894.
  • 9
    U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet). Available at: (Accessed 9/8/2011).
  • 10
    CDC. Update: influenza activity – United States, 2009–10 season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2010; 59:901908.
  • 11
    U.S. World Health Organization (WHO) and National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) Collaborating laboratories. Available at: (Accessed October 4, 2011).
  • 12
    Centers for Disease C, Prevention. Evaluation of rapid influenza diagnostic tests for detection of novel influenza A (H1N1) Virus – United States, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2009; 58:826829.
  • 13
    Chartrand C, Leeflang MM, Minion J, Brewer T, Pai M. Accuracy of rapid influenza diagnostic tests: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2012; 156:500511.
  • 14
    Garg S, Fry AM, Patton M, Fiore AE, Finelli L. Antiviral treatment of influenza in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2012; 31:e43e51.
  • 15
    Bonner AB, Monroe KW, Talley LI, Klasner AE, Kimberlin DW. Impact of the rapid diagnosis of influenza on physician decision-making and patient management in the pediatric emergency department: results of a randomized, prospective, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2003; 112:363367.
  • 16
    Monto AS, Koopman JS, Longini IM Jr. Tecumseh study of illness. XIII. Influenza infection and disease, 1976–1981. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 121:811822.
  • 17
    Talbot HK, Williams JV, Zhu Y, Poehling KA, Griffin MR, Edwards KM. Failure of routine diagnostic methods to detect influenza in hospitalized older adults. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010; 31:683688.
  • 18
    Weinberg GA, Erdman DD, Edwards KM et al. Superiority of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to conventional viral culture in the diagnosis of acute respiratory tract infections in children. J Infect Dis 2004; 189:706710.
  • 19
    Bueving HJ, van der Wouden JC, Berger MY, Thomas S. Incidence of influenza and associated illness in children aged 0–19 years: a systematic review. Rev Med Virol 2005; 15:383391.
  • 20
    O’Brien MA, Uyeki TM, Shay DK et al. Incidence of outpatient visits and hospitalizations related to influenza in infants and young children. Pediatrics 2004; 113:585593.
  • 21
    Neuzil KM, Zhu Y, Griffin MR et al. Burden of interpandemic influenza in children younger than 5 years: a 25-year prospective study. J Infect Dis 2002; 185:147152.
  • 22
    Poehling KA, Edwards KM, Weinberg GA et al. The underrecognized burden of influenza in young children. N Engl J Med 2006; 355:3140.
  • 23
    Fox JP, Hall CE, Cooney MK, Foy HM. Influenzavirus infections in Seattle families, 1975–1979. I. Study design, methods and the occurrence of infections by time and age. Am J Epidemiol 1982; 116:212227.
  • 24
    Glezen WP, Keitel WA, Taber LH, Piedra PA, Clover RD, Couch RB. Age distribution of patients with medically-attended illnesses caused by sequential variants of influenza A/H1N1: comparison to age-specific infection rates, 1978–1989. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 133:296304.
  • 25
    Baguelin M, Hoschler K, Stanford E et al. Age-specific incidence of A/H1N1 2009 influenza infection in England from sequential antibody prevalence data using likelihood-based estimation. PLoS ONE 2011; 6:e17074.