SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Global Influenza Programme. Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response: A WHO Guidance Document. Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2009; 71.
  • 2
    The Cabinet Office, Department of Health. Pandemic Flu – A National Framework for Responding to an Influenza Pandemic. London: The Cabinet Office, Department of Health, 2007; 139.
  • 3
    Ejemot RI, Ehiri JE, Meremikwu MM, Critchley JA. Hand hygiene for preventing diarrhoea (review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; 23:CD004265.
  • 4
    Jefferson T, Del Mar CB, Dooley L et al. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 6:CD006207.
  • 5
    Rabie T, Curtis V. Handwashing and risk of respiratory infections: a quantitative systematic review. Trop Med Int Health 2006; 11:258267.
  • 6
    Aiello AE, Coulborn RM, Perez V, Larson EL. Effect of hand hygiene on infectious disease risk in the community setting: a meta-analysis. Am J Public Health 2008; 98:13721381.
  • 7
    Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2008; 336:924926.
  • 8
    Kirkwood BR, Sterne JAC. Essential Medical Statistics, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd, 2003, Chapter 16, p 154-155 and chapter 23, p 241-242.
  • 9
    Higgins J, Deeks J, Altman D. Special topics in statistics: cluster randomized trials; in Higgins J, Green S (eds): Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Chichester: The Cochrane Collaboration, Wiley-Blackwell, 2008; 493498.
  • 10
    Guyatt G, Oxman AD, Akl EA et al. GRADE guidelines: 1. Introduction-GRADE evidence profiles and summary of findings tables. J Clin Epidemiol 2011; 64:383394.
  • 11
    Balshem H, Helfand M, Schunemann HJ et al. GRADE guidelines: 3. Rating the quality of evidence. J Clin Epidemiol 2011; 64:401406.
  • 12
    Stebbins S, Cummings DAT, Stark JH et al. Reduction in the incidence of influenza A but not influenza B associated with use of hand sanitizer and cough hygiene in schools: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Infect Dis 2011; 30:921926.
  • 13
    Talaat M, Afifi S, Dueger E et al. Effects of hand hygiene campaigns on incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza and absenteeism in schoolchildren, Cairo, Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis 2011; 17:619625.
  • 14
    Liu W, Yang P, Duan W, Wang X, Zhang Y, Wang Q. Factors associated with seropositivity of 2009 H1N1 influenza in Beijing, China. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 51:251252.
  • 15
    Larson EL, Ferng YH, Wong-McLoughlin J, Wang S, Haber M, Morse SS. Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on URIs and influenza in crowded, urban households. Public Health Rep 2010; 125:178191.
  • 16
    Cowling BJ, Chan KH, Fang VJ et al. Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2009; 151:437446.
  • 17
    Simmerman JM, Suntarattiwong P, Levy J et al. Findings from a household randomized controlled trial of hand washing and face masks to reduce influenza transmission in Bangkok, Thailand. Influenza Other Respi Viruses 2011; 5:256267.
  • 18
    Dyer DL, Shinder A, Shinder F. Alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer reduces elementary school absenteeism. Fam Med 2000; 32:633638.
  • 19
    Master D, Longe SH, Dickson H. Scheduled hand washing in an elementary school population. Fam Med 1997; 29:336339.
  • 20
    White CG, Shinder FS, Shinder AL, Dyer DL. Reduction of illness absenteeism in elementary schools using an alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer. J Sch Nurs 2001; 17:258265.
  • 21
    Roberts L, Smith W, Jorm L, Patel M, Douglas RM, McGilchrist C. Effect of infection control measures on the frequency of upper respiratory infection in child care: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2000; 105(4 Pt 1):738742.
  • 22
    Ladegaard MB, V S. Hand hygiene and sickness among small children attending day care centers. Ugeskr Laeger 1999; 161:43964400.
  • 23
    Falsey AR, Criddle MM, Kolassa JE, McCann RM, Brower CA, Hall WJ. Evaluation of a handwashing intervention to reduce respiratory illness rates in senior day-care centers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999; 20:200202.
  • 24
    Hubner NO, Hubner C, Wodny M, Kampf G, Kramer A. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectants in a public administration: impact on health and work performance related to acute respiratory symptoms and diarrhoea. BMC Infect Dis 2010; 10:250.
  • 25
    White C, Kolble R, Carlson R et al. The effect of hand hygiene on illness rate among students in university residence halls. Am J Infect Control 2003; 31:364370.
  • 26
    Luby SP, Agboatwalla M, Feikin DR et al. Effect of handwashing on child health: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005; 366:225233.
  • 27
    Sandora TJ, Taveras EM, Shih MC et al. A randomized, controlled trial of a multifaceted intervention including alcohol-based hand sanitizer and hand-hygiene education to reduce illness transmission in the home. Pediatrics 2005; 116:587594.
  • 28
    Ukoumunne O, Gulliford M, Chinn S, Sterne J, Burney P. Methods for evaluating area-wide and organisation-based interventions in health and health care: a systematic review. Health Technol Assess 1999; 3:iii92.
  • 29
    Grayson ML, Melvani S, Druce J et al. Efficacy of soap and water and alcohol-based hand-rub preparations against live H1N1 influenza virus on the hands of human volunteers. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48:285291.
  • 30
    Meadows E, Le Saux N. A systematic review of the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers for prevention of illness-related absenteeism in elementary school children. BMC Public Health 2004; 4:50.
  • 31
    Ryan MAK, Christian RS, Wohlrabe J. Handwashing and respiratory illness among young adults in military training. Am J Prev Med 2001; 21:7983.
  • 32
    Kimel LS. Handwashing education can reduce illness absenteeism. J Sch Nurs 1996; 12:1418.
  • 33
    Niffenegger JP. Proper handwashing promotes wellness in child care. J Pediatr Health Care 1997; 11:2631.
  • 34
    Butz AM, Larson E, Fosarelli P, Yolken R. Occurrence of infectious symptoms in children in day care homes. Am J Infect Control 1990; 18:347353.
  • 35
    Carabin H, Gyorkos TW, Soto JC, Joseph L, Payment P, Collet JP. Effectiveness of a training program in reducing infections in toddlers attending day care centers. Epidemiology 1999; 10:219227.
  • 36
    Kotch JB. Evaluation of an hygienic intervention in child day-care centers. Pediatrics 1994; 94(6 Pt 2):991994.
  • 37
    Uhari M, Mottonen M. An open randomized controlled trial of infection prevention in child day-care centers. Pediatr Infect Dis 1999; 18:672677.
  • 38
    Aiello AE, Murray GF, Perez V et al. Mask use, hand hygiene, and seasonal influenza-like illness among young adults: a randomized intervention trial. J Infect Dis 2010; 201:491498.
  • 39
    Aiello AE, Perez V, Coulborn RM, Davis BM, Uddin M, Monto AS. Facemasks, hand hygiene, and influenza among young adults: a randomized intervention trial. PLoS ONE 2012; 7:e29744.
  • 40
    Suess T, Remschmidt C, Schink SB et al. The role of facemasks and hand hygiene in prevention of influenza transmission in households: results from a cluster randomised trial; Berlin, Germany, 2009–2011. BMC Infect Dis 2012; 12:26.
  • 41
    Pandejpong D, Danchaivijitr S, Vanprapa N, Pandejpong T, Cook EF. Appropriate time-interval application of alcohol hand gel on reducing influenza-like illness among preschool children: a randomized, controlled trial. Am J Infect Control 2012, 40:507511.
  • 42
    Neuzil KM, Hohlbein C, Zhu Y. Illness among schoolchildren during influenza season: effect on school absenteeism, parental absenteeism from work, and secondary illness in families. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002; 156:986991.
  • 43
    Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Team. Respiratory and Hand Hygiene in an Influenza Pandemic: Scientific Evidence Base Review. London: Department of Health, 2011; 39.
  • 44
    Brankston G, Gitterman L, Hirji Z, Lemieux C, Gardam M. Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infect Dis 2007; 7:257265.
  • 45
    Goldmann DA. Transmission of viral respiratory infections in the home. Pediatr Infect Dis 2000; 19(10 Suppl):S97S102.
  • 46
    Schmidt WP, Wloch C, Biran A, Curtis V, Mangtani P. Formative research on the feasibility of hygiene interventions for influenza control in UK primary schools. BMC Public Health 2009; 9:390.
  • 47
    Michie S. Designing and implementing behaviour change interventions to improve population health. J Health Serv Res Policy 2008; 13(Suppl 3):6469.