• 1
    Molinari NA, Ortega-Sanchez IR, Messonnier ML et al. The annual impact of seasonal influenza in the US: measuring disease burden and costs. Vaccine 2007; 25:50865096.
  • 2
    Nichol KL, Nordin J, Mullooly J et al. Influenza vaccination and reduction in hospitalizations for cardiac disease and stroke among the elderly. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:13221332.
  • 3
    Bindman AB, Grumbach K, Osmond D et al. Preventable hospitalizations and access to health care. JAMA 1995; 274:305311.
  • 4
    Almirall J, Bolibar I, Serra-Prat M et al. New evidence of risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia: a population-based study. Eur Respir J 2008; 31:12741284.
  • 5
    Kornum JB, Thomsen RW, Riis A, Lervang HH, Schonheyder HC, Sorensen HT. Type 2 diabetes and pneumonia outcomes: a population-based cohort study. Diabetes Care 2007; 30:22512257.
  • 6
    Kornum JB, Norgaard M, Dethlefsen C et al. Obesity and risk of subsequent hospitalisation with pneumonia. Eur Respir J 2010; 36:13301336.
  • 7
    Schreter I, Kristian P, Tkacova R. Obesity and risk of pneumonia in patients with influenza. Eur Respir J 2011; 37:1298. author reply 9–300.
  • 8
    Kwong JC, Campitelli MA, Rosella LC. Obesity and respiratory hospitalizations during influenza seasons in Ontario, Canada: a cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53:413421.
  • 9
    Gardner EM, Beli E, Clinthorne JF, Duriancik DM. Energy intake and response to infection with influenza. Annu Rev Nutr 2011; 31:353367.
  • 10
    Lowen AC, Mubareka S, Steel J, Palese P. Influenza virus transmission is dependent on relative humidity and temperature. PLoS Pathog 2007; 3:14701476.
  • 11
    Shaman J, Kohn M. Absolute humidity modulates influenza survival, transmission, and seasonality. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 2009; 106:32433248.
  • 12
    Levine JA. Poverty and obesity in the U.S. Diabetes 2011; 60:26672668.
  • 13
    Miller RR III, Markewitz BA, Rolfs RT et al. Clinical findings and demographic factors associated with ICU admission in Utah due to novel 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection. Chest 2010; 137:752758.
  • 14
    Allen NB, Diez-Roux A, Liu K, Bertoni AG, Szklo M, Daviglus M. Association of health professional shortage areas and cardiovascular risk factor prevalence, awareness, and control in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2011; 4:565572.
  • 15
    Laditka JN, Laditka SB, Probst JC. More may be better: evidence of a negative relationship between physician supply and hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions. Health Serv Res 2005; 40:11481166.
  • 16
    Merrill RM, Shields EC, White GL Jr, Druce D. Climate conditions and physical activity in the United States. Am J Health Behav 2005; 29:371381.
  • 17
    Andreyeva T, Michaud PC, van Soest A. Obesity and health in Europeans aged 50 years and older. Public Health 2007; 121:497509.
  • 18
    Must A, Spadano J, Coakley EH, Field AE, Colditz G, Dietz WH. The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA 1999; 282:15231529.
  • 19
    Ward KA, Spokes PJ, McAnulty JM. Case-control study of risk factors for hospitalization caused by pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerg Infect Dis 2011; 17:14091416.
  • 20
    SAGE Working Group. Background paper on influenza vaccines and immunization. 2011.
  • 21
    Charland KM, Brownstein JS, Verma A, Brien S, Buckeridge DL. Socio-economic disparities in the burden of seasonal influenza: the effect of social and material deprivation on rates of influenza infection. PLoS ONE 2011; 6:e17207.
  • 22
    Hawker JI, Olowokure B, Sufi F, Weinberg J, Gill N, Wilson RC. Social deprivation and hospital admission for respiratory infection: an ecological study. Respir Med 2003; 97:12191224.
  • 23
    Gross PA, Hermogenes AW, Sacks HS, Lau J, Levandowski RA. The efficacy of influenza vaccine in elderly persons. A meta-analysis and review of the literature. Ann Intern Med 1995; 123:518527.
  • 24
    Heinonen S, Silvennoinen H, Lehtinen P, Vainionpaa R, Ziegler T, Heikkinen T. Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine in children aged 9 months to 3 years: an observational cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis 2011; 11:2329.
  • 25
    Ostbye T, Taylor DH Jr, Yancy WS Jr, Krause KM. Associations between obesity and receipt of screening mammography, Papanicolaou tests, and influenza vaccination: results from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) Study. Am J Public Health 2005; 95:16231630.
  • 26
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Differences in prevalence of obesity among black, white, and Hispanic adults - United States, 2006-2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2009; 58:740744.
  • 27
    Chowell G, Ayala A, Berisha V, Viboud C, Schumacher M. Risk factors for mortality among 2009 A/H1N1 influenza hospitalizations in Maricopa County, Arizona, April 2009 to March 2010. Comput Math Methods Med 2012; 2012:914196.
  • 28
    Christensen KL, Holman RC, Steiner CA, Sejvar JJ, Stoll BJ, Schonberger LB. Infectious disease hospitalizations in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 49:10251035.
  • 29
    Kirby JB, Liang L, Chen HJ, Wang Y. Race, place, and obesity: the complex relationships among community racial/ethnic composition, individual race/ethnicity, and obesity in the United States. Am J Public Health 2012; 102:15721578.
  • 30
    Cardoso MR, Cousens SN, de Goes Siqueira LF, Alves FM, D’Angelo LA. Crowding: risk factor or protective factor for lower respiratory disease in young children? BMC Public Health 2004; 4:19.
  • 31
    Murray EL, Klein M, Brondi L et al. Rainfall, household crowding, and acute respiratory infections in the tropics. Epidemiol Infect 2012; 140:7886.
  • 32
    Chiolero A, Faeh D, Paccaud F, Cornuz J. Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 87:801809.
  • 33
    Arcavi L, Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and infection. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164:22062216.
  • 34
    Wong CM, Yang L, Chan KP et al. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for influenza-associated mortality: evidence from an elderly cohort. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2012; doi: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00411.x.
  • 35
    HCUP State Inpatient Databases (SID). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). Rockville, MD, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 20022008. .
  • 36
    Marsden-Haug N, Foster VB, Gould PL, Elbert E, Wang H, Pavlin JA. Code-based syndromic surveillance for influenza like illness by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. Emerg Infect Dis 2007; 13:207216.
  • 37
    Koplan JP, Liverman CT, Kraak VI. Preventing childhood obesity: health in the balance: executive summary. J Am Diet Assoc 2005; 105:131138.
  • 38
    Thompson WW, Shay DK, Weintraub E et al. Influenza-associated hospitalizations in the United States. JAMA 2004; 292:13331340.
  • 39
    Nemani R, Hashimoto H, Votava P et al. Monitoring and forecasting ecosystem dynamics using the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS). Remote Sens Environ 2009; 113:14971509.
  • 40
    Greenland S. Basic problems in interaction assessment. Environ Health Perspect 1993; 101(Suppl 4):5966.
  • 41
    Zuur AF. Mixed Effects Models and Extensions in Ecology With R. New York, NY: Springer, 2009. Xxii, 574 pp.
  • 42
    Kornum JB, Norgaard M, Dethlefsen C et al. Obesity and risk of subsequent hospitalisation with pneumonia. Eur Respir J 2010; 36:13301336.
  • 43
    Morgan OW, Bramley A, Fowlkes A et al. Morbid obesity as a risk factor for hospitalization and death due to 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) disease. PLoS ONE 2010; 5:e9694.
  • 44
    Almirall J, Morato I, Riera F et al. Incidence of community-acquired pneumonia and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection: a prospective multicentre study. Eur Respir J 1993; 6:1418.
  • 45
    Blumentals WA, Nevitt A, Peng MM, Toovey S. Body mass index and the incidence of influenza-associated pneumonia in a UK primary care cohort. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2012; 6:2836.
  • 46
    Schnoor M, Klante T, Beckmann M , et al. Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in German adults: the impact of children in the household. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:13891397.
  • 47
    Falagas ME, Kompoti M. Obesity and infection. Lancet Infect Dis 2006; 6:438446.
  • 48
    Sheridan PA, Paich HA, Handy J et al. Obesity is associated with impaired immune response to influenza vaccination in humans. Int J Obes (Lond) 2012; 36(8):10721077.
  • 49
    Koenig SM. Pulmonary complications of obesity. Am J Biomed Sci 2001; 321:249279.
  • 50
    Allard R, Leclerc P, Tremblay C, Tannenbaum TN. Diabetes and the severity of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection. Diabetes Care 2010; 33:14911493.
  • 51
    Fry AM, Shay DK, Holman RC, Curns AT, Anderson LJ. Trends in hospitalizations for pneumonia among persons aged 65 years or older in the United States, 1988-2002. JAMA 2005; 294:27122719.
  • 52
    Kornum JB, Thomsen RW, Riis A, Lervang HH, Schonheyder HC, Sorensen HT. Diabetes, glycemic control, and risk of hospitalization with pneumonia: a population-based case–control study. Diabetes Care 2008; 31:15411545.
  • 53
    Smeeth L, Thomas SL, Hall AJ, Hubbard R, Farrington P, Vallance P. Risk of myocardial infarction and stroke after acute infection or vaccination. N Engl J Med 2004; 351:26112618.
  • 54
    Coleman LA, Waring SC, Irving SA, Vandermause M, Shay DK, Belongia EA. Evaluation of obesity as an independent risk factor for medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza. Influenza Other Respi Viruses 2012; doi: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00377.x.
  • 55
    Bahwere P, De Mol P, Donnen P et al. Improvements in nutritional management as a determinant of reduced mortality from community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection in hospitalized children from rural central Africa. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004; 23:739747.
  • 56
    Fawzi WW, Herrera MG, Willett WC, Nestel P, el Amin A, Mohamed KA. Dietary vitamin A intake and the incidence of diarrhea and respiratory infection among Sudanese children. J Nutr 1995; 125:12111221.
  • 57
    Hamer DH, Sempertegui F, Estrella B et al. Micronutrient deficiencies are associated with impaired immune response and higher burden of respiratory infections in elderly Ecuadorians. J Nutr 2009; 139:113119.
  • 58
    Sempertegui F, Estrella B, Camaniero V et al. The beneficial effects of weekly low-dose vitamin A supplementation on acute lower respiratory infections and diarrhea in Ecuadorian children. Pediatrics 1999; 104:e1.
  • 59
    Konig D, Grathwohl D, Weinstock C, Northoff H, Berg A. Upper respiratory tract infection in athletes: influence of lifestyle, type of sport, training effort, and immunostimulant intake. Exerc Immunol Rev 2000; 6:102120.
  • 60
    Sim YJ, Yu S, Yoon KJ, Loiacono CM, Kohut ML. Chronic exercise reduces illness severity, decreases viral load, and results in greater anti-inflammatory effects than acute exercise during influenza infection. J Infect Dis 2009; 200:14341442.
  • 61
    Wong CM, Lai HK, Ou CQ et al. Is exercise protective against influenza-associated mortality? PLoS ONE 2008; 3:e2108.
  • 62
    Chandra RK. Nutrition and the immune system: an introduction. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66:460S463S.
  • 63
    Nelson DE, Holtzman D, Bolen J, Stanwyck CA, Mack KA. Reliability and validity of measures from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Soz Praventivmed 2001; 46(Suppl 1):S3S42.
  • 64
    Agras WS, Hammer LD, McNicholas F, Kraemer HC. Risk factors for childhood overweight: a prospective study from birth to 9.5 years. J Pediatr 2004; 145:2025.