• Amantadine;
  • antiviral drug resistance;
  • H1N1 subtype;
  • oseltamivir;
  • pandemic influenza;
  • seasonal influenza

Please cite this paper as: Dapat et al. (2012) Delayed emergence of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal influenza A (H1N1) and pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses in Myanmar. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12030.

The prevalence and timing of emergence of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal and pandemic influenza A (H1N1) viruses in Myanmar in 2008 and 2009 are described in this report. In 2008, the oseltamivir-resistant seasonal H1N1 virus was detected at a lower rate (6%) and emerged at least 2 months later when compared with neighboring countries. Similarly, the prevalence of pandemic H1N1 virus was low (3%) and the timing of emergence was late (August 2009) in Myanmar. Interestingly, we detected three isolates that were resistant to both amantadine and oseltamivir. Limited movement of people into the country is attributed to the delayed emergence of drug-resistant seasonal and pandemic A(H1N1) viruses.