• 1
    Holmes KV, Lai MM. Coronaviridae: the viruses and their replication; in Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM (eds): Fields Virology. 3rd edn. New York: Raven Press, 1996; 10751093.
  • 2
    Hamre D, Procknow JJ. A new virus isolated from the human respiratory tract. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1966; 121:190193.
  • 3
    Drosten C, Gunther S, Preiser W et al. Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:19671976.
  • 4
    World Health Organization. SARS outbreak contained worldwide [monograph on the Internet]. 2003 July 5 [cited 2004 Aug 26]. Available at (Accessed 10 May 2012).
  • 5
    van der Hoek L, Pyrc K, Jebbink MF et al. Identification of a new human coronavirus. Nat Med 2004; 10:368371.
  • 6
    Woo PC, Lau SK, Chu CM et al. Characterization and complete genome sequence of a novel coronavirus, coronavirus HKU1, from patients with pneumonia. J Virol 2005; 79:884895.
  • 7
    van der Hoek L. Human coronaviruses: what do they cause? Antivir Ther 2007; 12:651658.
  • 8
    Han TH, Chung JY, Kim SW, Hwang ES. Human Coronavirus-NL63 infections in Korean children, 2004–2006. J Clin Virol 2007; 38:2731.
  • 9
    van Elden LJ, van Loon AM, van Alphen F et al. Frequent detection of human coronaviruses in clinical specimens from patients with respiratory tract infection by use of a novel real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. J Infect Dis 2004; 189:652657.
  • 10
    Arden KE, Nissen MD, Sloots TP, Mackay IM. New human coronavirus, HCoV-NL63, associated with severe lower respiratory tract disease in Australia. J Med Virol 2005; 75:455462.
  • 11
    Ebihara T, Endo R, Ma X, Ishiguro N, Kikuta H. Detection of human coronavirus NL63 in young children with bronchiolitis. J Med Virol 2005; 75:463465.
  • 12
    Moës E, Vijgen L, Keyaerts E et al. A novel pancoronavirus RT-PCR assay: frequent detection of human coronavirus NL63 in children hospitalized with respiratory tract infections in Belgium. BMC Infect Dis 2005; 1:56.
  • 13
    Gerna G, Percivalle E, Sarasini A et al. Human respiratory coronavirus HKU1 versus other coronavirus infections in Italian hospitalised patients. J Clin Virol 2007; 38:244250.
  • 14
    Vabret A, Dina J, Gouarin S et al. Human (non-severe acute respiratory syndrome) coronavirus infections in hospitalized children in France. J Paediatr Child Health 2007; 44:176181.
  • 15
    Sung JY, Lee HJ, Eun BW et al. Role of human coronavirus NL63 in hospitalized children with croup. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2010; 29:822826.
  • 16
    Gorse GJ, O'Connor TZ, Hall SL, Vitale JN, Nichol KL. Human coronavirus and acute respiratory illness in older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Infect Dis 2009; 199:847857.
  • 17
    da Silva Filho LV, Zerbinati RM, Tateno AF et al. The differential clinical impact of human coronavirus species in children with cystic fibrosis. J Infect Dis 2012; 206:384388.
  • 18
    Vabret A, Dina J, Brison E, Brouard J, Freymuth F. Human coronaviruses. Pathol Biol (Paris) 2008; 57:147160.
  • 19
    Yeh EA, Collins A, Cohen ME, Duffner PK, Faden H. Detection of coronavirus in the central nervous system of a child with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Pediatrics 2004; 113(1 Pt 1):e73e76.
  • 20
    Patrick DM, Petric M, Skowronski DM et al. An outbreak of human coronavirus OC43 infection and serological cross-reactivity with SARS coronavirus. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2006; 17:330336.
  • 21
    Vabret A, Mourez T, Gouarin S, Petitjean J, Freymuth F. An outbreak of coronavirus OC43 respiratory infection in Normandy, France. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36:985989.
  • 22
    Oosterhof L, Christensen CB, Sengeløv H. Fatal lower respiratory tract disease with human corona virus NL63 in an adult haematopoietic cell transplant recipient. Bone Marrow Transplant 2010; 45:11151116.
  • 23
    Bastien N, Anderson K, Hart L et al. Human coronavirus NL63 infection in Canada. J Infect Dis 2005; 191:503506.
  • 24
    Cabeça TK, Bellei N. Human coronavirus NL-63 infection in a Brazilian patient suspected of H1N1 2009 influenza infection: description of a fatal case. J Clin Virol 2012; 53:8284.
  • 25
    Bellei N, Carraro E, Perosa A, Granato C. Patterns of influenza infections among different risk groups in Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis 2007; 11:399402.
  • 26
    Kuypers J, Martin ET, Heugel J, Wright N, Morrow R, Englund JA. Clinical disease in children associated with newly described coronavirus subtypes. Pediatrics 2007; 119:e70e76.
  • 27
    Lau SKP, Woo PCY, Yip CCY et al. Coronavirus HKU1 and other coronavirus infections in Hong Kong. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44:20632071.
  • 28
    Gaunt ER, Hardie A, Claas EC, Simmonds P, Templeton KE. Epidemiology and clinical presentations of the four human coronaviruses 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 detected over 3 years using a novel multiplex real-time PCR method. J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48:29402947.
  • 29
    Vijgen L, Moës E, Keyaerts E, Li S, van Ranst M. A pancoronavirus RT-PCR assay for detection of all known coronaviruses. Methods Mol Biol 2008; 454:312.
  • 30
    Dare RK, Fry AM, Chittaganpitch M, Sawanpanyalert P, Olsen SJ, Erdman DD. Human coronavirus infections in rural Thailand: a comprehensive study using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. J Infect Dis 2007; 196:13211328.
  • 31
    Leung TF, Chan PK, Wong WK, Ip M, Cheng WT, Ng PC. Human coronavirus NL63 in children: epidemiology, disease spectrum, and genetic diversity. Hong Kong Med J 2012; 18:2730.
  • 32
    Dominguez SR, Robinson CC, Holmes KV. Detection of four human coronaviruses in respiratory infections in children: a one-year study in Colorado. J Med Virol 2009; 81:15971604.
  • 33
    Prill MM, Iwane MK, Edwards KM et al. Human coronavirus in young children hospitalized for acute respiratory illness and asymptomatic controls. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2012; 31:235240.
  • 34
    Singleton RJ, Bulkow LR, Miernyk K et al. Viral respiratory infections in hospitalized and community control children in Alaska. J Med Virol 2010; 82:12821290.
  • 35
    Glezen WP, Greenberg SB, Atmar RL, Piedra PA, Couch RB. Impact of respiratory infections on persons with chronic underlying conditions. JAMA 2000; 283:499505.
  • 36
    Cabeça TK, Carraro E, Watanabe AS, Granato CFH, Bellei NCJ. Infections with human coronaviruses NL63 and OC43 among hospitalised and outpatient individuals in São Paulo, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2012; 107:693694.
  • 37
    Pene F, Merlat A, Vabret A et al. Coronavirus 229E-related pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 37:929932.
  • 38
    Koh Y, Hegney DG, Drury V. Comprehensive systematic review of healthcare workers'perceptions of risk and use of coping strategies towards emerging respiratory infectious diseases. Int J Evid Based Healthc 2011; 9:403419.
  • 39
    Hui DS, Chan PK. Severe acute respiratory syndrome and coronavirus. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2010; 24:619638.
  • 40
    Ho KY, Singh KS, Habib AG et al. Mild illness associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection: lessons from a prospective seroepidemiologic study of health-care workers in a teaching hospital in Singapore. J Infect Dis 2004; 189:642647.
  • 41
    Dijkman R, Jebbink MF, Gaunt E et al. The dominance of human coronavirus OC43 and NL63 infections in infants. J Clin Virol 2012; 53:135139.
  • 42
    Woo PC, Yuen KY, Lau SK. Epidemiology of coronavirus associated respiratory tract infections and the role of rapid diagnostic tests: a prospective study. Hong Kong Med J 2012; 18:2224.
  • 43
    Ren L, Gonzalez R, Xu J et al. Prevalence of human coronaviruses in adults with acute respiratory tract infections in Beijing, China. J Med Virol 2011; 83:291297.
  • 44
    Gerna G, Campanini G, Rovida F et al. Genetic variability of human coronavirus OC43-, 229E-, and NL63-like strains and their association with lower respiratory tract infections of hospitalized infants and immunocompromised patients. J Med Virol 2006; 78:938949.
  • 45
    van der Hoek L, Ihorst G, Sure K et al. Burden of disease due to human coronavirus NL63 infections and periodicity of infection. J Clin Virol 2010; 48:104108.