• 1
    CDC. Influenza Antiviral Medications: A summary for Clinicians. Available at:
  • 2
    Tramontana AR, George B, Hurt AC et al. Oseltamivir resistance in adult oncology and hematology patients infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis 2010; 16:10681075.
  • 3
    Hurt AC, Chotpitayasunondh T, Cox NJ et al. Antiviral resistance during the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic: public health, laboratory, and clinical perspectives. Lancet Infect Dis 2012; 12:240248.
  • 4
    Deng YM, Caldwell N, Hurt A et al. A comparison of pyrosequencing and neuraminidase inhibition assays for the detection of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. Antiviral Res 2011; 90:8791.
  • 5
    Hurt AC, Okomo-Adhiambo M, Gubareva LV. The fluorescence neuraminidase inhibition assay: a functional method for detection of influenza virus resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitors. Methods Mol Biol 2012;865:115125.
  • 6
    Baz M, Abed Y, McDonald J et al. Characterization of multidrug-resistant influenza A/H3N2 viruses shed during 1 year by an immunocompromised child. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43:15551561.
  • 7
    Ruiz-Carrascoso G, Casas I, Pozo F et al. Prolonged shedding of amantadine- and oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H3N2) virus with dual mutations in an immunocompromised infant. Antivir Ther 2010; 15:10591063.
  • 8
    Carr S, Ilyushina NA, Franks J et al. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza A and B viruses pre- and postantiviral therapy in children and young adults with cancer. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2011; 30:284288.
  • 9
    Ghedin E, Holmes EC, DePasse JV et al. Presence of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic A/H1N1 minor variants before drug therapy with subsequent selection and transmission. J Infect Dis 2012; 206:15041511.
  • 10
    Herlocher ML, Truscon R, Elias S et al. Influenza viruses resistant to the antiviral drug oseltamivir: transmission studies in ferrets. J Infect Dis 2004; 190:16271630.
  • 11
    Yen HL, Herlocher LM, Hoffmann E et al. Neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant influenza viruses may differ substantially in fitness and transmissibility. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2005; 49:40754084.
  • 12
    Bouvier NM, Lowen AC, Palese P. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza A viruses are transmitted efficiently among guinea pigs by direct contact but not by aerosol. J Virol 2008; 82:1005210058.
  • 13
    Simon P, Holder BP, Bouhy X et al. The I222V neuraminidase mutation has a compensatory role in replication of an oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus A/H3N2 E119V mutant. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49:715717.