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Keywords:

  • influenza vaccine;
  • nasal vaccination;
  • Pulmonary surfactant;
  • synthetic mucosal adjuvant;
  • Th1/Th2 responses

Background

We found previously that bovine pulmonary Surfacten® used in newborns with acute respiratory distress syndrome is a safe and efficacious antigen vehicle for intranasal vaccination.

Objectives

The objective of this study was to industrially produce a synthetic adjuvant mimicking Surfacten® for clinical use without risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

Methods

We selected three Surfacten lipids and surfactant protein (SP)-C as essential constituents for adjuvanticity. For replacement of the hydrophobic SP-C, we synthesized SP-related peptides and analyzed their adjuvanticity. We evaluated lyophilization to replace sonication for the binding of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) to the synthetic adjuvant. We also added a carboxy vinyl polymer (CVP) to the synthetic adjuvant and named the mixture as SF-10 adjuvant. HA combined with SF-10 was administered intranasally to mice, and induction of nasal-wash HA-specific secretory IgA (s-IgA) and serum IgG with Th1-/Th2-type cytokine responses in nasal cavity and virus challenge test were assessed.

Results and Conclusions

Intranasal immunization with HA–SF–10 induced significantly higher levels of anti-HA-specific nasal-wash s-IgA and serum IgG than those induced by HA-poly(I:C), a reported potent mucosal vaccine, and provided highly efficient protection against lethal doses of virus challenge in mice. Anti-HA-specific serum IgG levels induced by HA–SF–10 were almost equivalent to those induced by subcutaneous immunization of HA twice. Intranasal administration of HA–SF–10 induced balanced anti-HA-specific IgG1 and IgG2a in sera and IFN-γ- and IL-4-producing lymphocytes in nasal cavity without any induction of anti-HA IgE. The results suggest that HA–SF–10 is a promising nasal influenza vaccine and that SF-10 can be supplied in large quantities commercially.