Both authors contributed equally to this study.
H9N2 influenza viruses from birds used in falconry
Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Volume 7, Issue 6, pages 1241–1245, November 2013
How to Cite
2013) H9N2 influenza viruses from birds used in falconry. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7(6), 1241–1245.et al. (
- Issue published online: 5 NOV 2013
- Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 JUN 2013
- National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
- National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services
- American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC)
- genetic mixing;
- H9N2 avian influenza viruses;
- Middle East;
- white-bellied bustard
H9N2 avian influenza viruses continue to spread in poultry and wild birds throughout Eurasia.
To characterize H9N2 influenza viruses from pheasants, quail, and white-bellied bustards (WBBs) used to train falcons in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Four H9N2 viruses were isolated from pheasants, quail, and WBB used for falconry in the UAE, and antigenic, molecular, phylogenetic analysis, and invivo characterization of H9N2 viruses were performed.
Results and conclusions
The pheasant and WBB isolates were antigenically and molecularly clearly related and along with the quail isolates contained multiple “avian–human” substitutions. The release of smuggled H9N2-infected birds for falconry may contribute to the spread of these viruses to wild birds, domestic poultry, and humans.