• 1
    Viboud C, Alonso WJ, Simonsen L. Influenza in tropical regions. PLoS Med 2006; 3:e89.
  • 2
    Jennings LC, Smith DW, Chan PK. Report of the first Asia-Pacific influenza summit, Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI), Bangkok, 12–13 June 2012. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2013; doi: 10.1111/irv.12133.
  • 3
    Gupta V, Dawood FS, Muangchana C et al. Influenza vaccination guidelines and vaccine sales in southeast Asia: 2008–2011. PLoS ONE 2012; 7:e52842.
  • 4
    Members of the Western Pacific Regional Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System. Seasonal influenza vaccine policies, recommendations and use in the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region. WPSAR 2013; 4:19.
  • 5
    Samaan G, McPherson M, Partridge J. A review of the evidence to support influenza vaccine introduction in countries and areas of WHO's Western Pacific Region. PLoS ONE 2013; 8:e70003.
  • 6
    Thompson WW, Shay DK, Weintraub E et al. Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States. JAMA 2003; 289:179186.
  • 7
    Chow A, Ma S, Ling AE, Chew SK. Influenza-associated deaths in tropical Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis 2006; 12:114121.
  • 8
    Wong CM, Chan KP, Hedley AJ, Peiris JS. Influenza-associated mortality in Hong Kong. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39:16111617.
  • 9
    Li CK, Choi BC, Wong TW. Influenza-related deaths and hospitalizations in Hong Kong: a subtropical area. Public Health 2006; 120:517524.
  • 10
    Feng L, Shay DK, Jiang Y et al. Influenza-associated mortality in temperate and subtropical Chinese cities, 2003–2008. Bull World Health Organ 2012; 90:279288B.
  • 11
    Western Pacific Region Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza in the Western Pacific Region of the World Health Organization, 2006–2010. PLoS ONE 2012; 7:e37568.
  • 12
    Partridge J, Kieny MP. Global production capacity of seasonal influenza vaccine in 2011. Vaccine 2013; 31:728731.
  • 13
    WHO. Vaccines against influenza WHO position paper – November 2012. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2012; 87:461476.
  • 14
    Shortridge KF, Stuart-Harris CH. An influenza epicentre? Lancet 1982; 2:812813.
  • 15
    Russell CA, Jones TC, Barr IG et al. The global circulation of seasonal influenza A (H3N2) viruses. Science 2008; 320:340346.
  • 16
    Jones KE, Patel NG, Levy MA et al. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature 2008; 451:990993.
  • 17
    Webby RJ, Webster RG. Are we ready for pandemic influenza? Science 2003; 302:15191522.
  • 18
    Gao R, Cao B, Hu Y et al. Human infection with a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:18881897.
  • 19
    WHO. Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines 2011. Available at (Accessed 20 August 2013).
  • 20
    WHO. Meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization, April 2012 – conclusions and recommendations. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2012; 87(21):201206.
  • 21
    Suhardono M. Establishment of pandemic influenza vaccine production capacity at Bio Farma, Indonesia. Vaccine 2011; 29(Suppl. 1):A22A25.
  • 22
    Surichan S, Wirachwong P, Supachaturas W et al. Development of influenza vaccine production capacity by the Government Pharmaceutical Organization of Thailand: addressing the threat of an influenza pandemic. Vaccine 2011; 29(Suppl 1):A29A33.
  • 23
    Ventura R, Brunner L, Heriyanto B et al. Technology transfer of an oil-in-water vaccine-adjuvant for strengthening pandemic influenza preparedness in Indonesia. Vaccine 2013; 31:16411645.
  • 24
    Friede M, Palkonyay L, Alfonso C et al. WHO initiative to increase global and equitable access to influenza vaccine in the event of a pandemic: supporting developing country production capacity through technology transfer. Vaccine 2011; 29(Suppl 1):A2A7.
  • 25
    Hoa LK, Hiep LV, Be LV. Development of pandemic influenza vaccine production capacity in Viet Nam. Vaccine 2011; 29(Suppl 1):A34A36.
  • 26
    Hossain S. Lessons learnt from pandemic influenza vaccine deployment and vaccination. First meeting on seasonal influenza vaccines in the Western Pacific Region, Manilla, 22–23 October, 2012.
  • 27
    Macroepidemiology of Influenza Vaccination Study Group. The macro-epidemiology of influenza vaccination in 56 countries, 1997–2003. Vaccine 2005; 23:51335143.
  • 28
    Palache A. Seasonal influenza vaccine provision in 157 countries (2004–2009) and the potential influence of national public health policies. Vaccine 2011; 29:94599466.
  • 29
    WHO. Meeting report: Sixth meeting on National Influenza Centres and Influenza Surveillance for the Western Pacific and South-East Asia Regions. Hanoi, Viet Nam, 29–31 May 2011. 2011. Available at (Accessed 20 August 2013).
  • 30
    Van Kerkhove MD, Vandemaele KA, Shinde V et al. Risk factors for severe outcomes following 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection: a global pooled analysis. PLoS Med 2011; 8:e1001053.
  • 31
    Zaman K, Roy E, Arifeen SE et al. Effectiveness of maternal influenza immunization in mothers and infants. N Engl J Med 2008; 359:15551564.
  • 32
    Steinhoff MC, Omer SB, Roy E et al. Neonatal outcomes after influenza immunization during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ 2012; 184:645653.
  • 33
    Poehling KA, Szilagyi PG, Staat MA et al. Impact of maternal immunization on influenza hospitalizations in infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011; 204(6 Suppl 1):S141S148.
  • 34
    Eick AA, Uyeki TM, Klimov A et al. Maternal influenza vaccination and effect on influenza virus infection in young infants. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2011; 165:104111.
  • 35
    Benowitz I, Esposito DB, Gracey KD, Shapiro ED, Vazquez M. Influenza vaccine given to pregnant women reduces hospitalization due to influenza in their infants. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 51:13551361.
  • 36
    McNeil SA, Dodds LA, Fell DB et al. Effect of respiratory hospitalization during pregnancy on infant outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011; 204(6 Suppl 1):S54S57.
  • 37
    Omer SB, Goodman D, Steinhoff MC et al. Maternal influenza immunization and reduced likelihood of prematurity and small for gestational age births: a retrospective cohort study. PLoS Med 2011; 8:e1000441.
  • 38
    Anderson TP, Werno AM, Barratt K, Mahagamasekera P, Murdoch DR, Jennings LC. Comparison of four multiplex PCR assays for the detection of viral pathogens in respiratory specimens. J Virol Methods 2013; 191:118121.
  • 39
    Hollmeyer H, Hayden F, Mounts A, Buchholz U. Review: interventions to increase influenza vaccination among healthcare workers in hospitals. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2013; 7:604621.
  • 40
    Hayward AC, Harling R, Wetten S et al. Effectiveness of an influenza vaccine programme for care home staff to prevent death, morbidity, and health service use among residents: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2006; 333:1241.
  • 41
    Burls A, Jordan R, Barton P et al. Vaccinating healthcare workers against influenza to protect the vulnerable–is it a good use of healthcare resources? A systematic review of the evidence and an economic evaluation. Vaccine 2006; 24:42124221.
  • 42
    Osterholm MT, Kelley NS, Sommer A, Belongia EA. Efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2012; 12:3644.
  • 43
    Rakita RM, Hagar BA, Crome P, Lammert JK. Mandatory influenza vaccination of healthcare workers: a 5-year study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010; 31:881888.
  • 44
    Babcock HM, Gemeinhart N, Jones M, Dunagan WC, Woeltje KF. Mandatory influenza vaccination of health care workers: translating policy to practice. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 50:459464.
  • 45
    Johnson JG, Talbot TR. New approaches for influenza vaccination of healthcare workers. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2011; 24:363369.
  • 46
    Helms CM, Polgreen PM. Should influenza immunisation be mandatory for healthcare workers? Yes. BMJ 2008; 337:a2142.
  • 47
    Oshitani H, Saito R, Seki N et al. Influenza vaccination levels and influenza-like illness in long-term-care facilities for elderly people in Niigata, Japan, during an influenza A (H3N2) epidemic. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000; 21:728730.
  • 48
    Song JY, Park CW, Jeong HW, Cheong HJ, Kim WJ, Kim SR. Effect of a hospital campaign for influenza vaccination of healthcare workers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006; 27:612617.
  • 49
    Lee HY, Fong YT. On-site influenza vaccination arrangements improved influenza vaccination rate of employees of a tertiary hospital in Singapore. Am J Infect Control 2007; 35:481483.
  • 50
    Vesikari T, Knuf M, Wutzler P et al. Oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant with influenza vaccine in young children. N Engl J Med 2011; 365:14061416.
  • 51
    de Lataillade C, Auvergne S, Delannoy I. 2005 and 2006 seasonal influenza vaccination coverage rates in 10 countries in Africa, Asia Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the Middle East. J Public Health Policy 2009;30:83101.
  • 52
    Jefferson T, Di Pietrantonj C, Al-Ansary LA, Ferroni E, Thorning S, Thomas RE. Vaccines for preventing influenza in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010:CD004876.
  • 53
    Praditsuwan R, Assantachai P, Wasi C, Puthavatana P, Kositanont U. The efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccination among Thai elderly persons living in the community. J Med Assoc Thai 2005; 88:256264.
  • 54
    Isahak I, Mahayiddin AA, Ismail R. Effectiveness of influenza vaccination in prevention of influenza-like illness among inhabitants of old folk homes. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2007; 38:841848.
  • 55
    Salk JE. Reactions to concentrated influenza virus vaccines. J Immunol 1948; 58:369395.
  • 56
    Cox NJ, Subbarao K. Influenza. Lancet 1999; 354:12771282.
  • 57
    Hampson AW. Vaccines for pandemic influenza. The history of our current vaccines, their limitations and the requirements to deal with a pandemic threat. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2008; 37:510517.
  • 58
    Reed C, Meltzer MI, Finelli L, Fiore A. Public health impact of including two lineages of influenza B in a quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccine. Vaccine 2012; 30:19931998.
  • 59
    Ambrose CS, Levin MJ. The rationale for quadrivalent influenza vaccines. Human Vaccin Immunother 2012; 8:8188.
  • 60
    Lee BY, Bartsch SM, Willig AM. The economic value of a quadrivalent versus trivalent influenza vaccine. Vaccine 2012; 30:74437446.
  • 61
    Lee BY, Bartsch SM, Willig AM. Corrigendum to “The economic value of a quadrivalent versus trivalent influenza vaccine” [Vaccine 30 (2012) 7443–7446]. Vaccine 2013; 31:24772479.
  • 62
    Ambrose CS, Wu X, Knuf M, Wutzler P. The efficacy of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine in children 2 through 17 years of age: a meta-analysis of 8 randomized controlled studies. Vaccine 2012; 30:886892.
  • 63
    Heikkinen T, Heinonen S. Effectiveness and safety of influenza vaccination in children: European perspective. Vaccine 2011; 29:75297534.
  • 64
    Monto AS, Ohmit SE, Petrie JG et al. Comparative efficacy of inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines. N Engl J Med 2009; 361:12601267.
  • 65
    Ambrose CS, Levin MJ, Belshe RB. The relative efficacy of trivalent live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines in children and adults. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2011; 5:6775.
  • 66
    Ohmit SE, Victor JC, Rotthoff JR et al. Prevention of antigenically drifted influenza by inactivated and live attenuated vaccines. N Engl J Med 2006; 355:25132522.
  • 67
    Ohmit SE, Victor JC, Teich ER et al. Prevention of symptomatic seasonal influenza in 2005-2006 by inactivated and live attenuated vaccines. J Infect Dis 2008; 198:312317.
  • 68
    Baz M, Luke CJ, Cheng X, Jin H, Subbarao K. H5N1 vaccines in humans. Virus Res 2013; Available at (Accessed 20 August 2013).
  • 69
    Hughes B, Hayden F, Perikov Y, Hombach J, Tam JS. Report of the 5th meeting on influenza vaccines that induce broad spectrum and long-lasting immune responses, World Health Organization, Geneva, 16–17 November 2011. Vaccine 2012; 30:66126622.
  • 70
    Stephenson I, Hayden F, Osterhaus A et al. Report of the fourth meeting on ‘Influenza vaccines that induce broad spectrum and long-lasting immune responses’, World Health Organization and Wellcome Trust, London, United Kingdom, 9–10 November 2009. Vaccine 2010; 28:38753882.
  • 71
    Mannino S, Villa M, Apolone G et al. Effectiveness of adjuvanted influenza vaccination in elderly subjects in northern Italy. Am J Epidemiol 2012; 176:527533.
  • 72
    de Lavallade H, Garland P, Sekine T et al. Repeated vaccination is required to optimize seroprotection against H1N1 in the immunocompromised host. Haematologica 2011; 96:307314.
  • 73
    Girard MP, Tam JS, Pervikov Y, Katz JM. Report on the first WHO integrated meeting on development and clinical trials of influenza vaccines that induce broadly protective and long-lasting immune responses: Hong Kong SAR, China, 24–26 January 2013. Vaccine 2013; 31:37663771.
  • 74
    Glezen WP. Cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine production. Lancet 2011; 377:698700.
  • 75
    Barrett PN, Portsmouth D, Ehrlich HJ. Vero cell culture-derived pandemic influenza vaccines: preclinical and clinical development. Expert Rev Vaccines 2013; 12:395413.
  • 76
    Barrett PN, Berezuk G, Fritsch S et al. Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of a Vero-cell-culture-derived trivalent influenza vaccine: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2011; 377:751759.
  • 77
    Frey S, Vesikari T, Szymczakiewicz-Multanowska A et al. Clinical efficacy of cell culture-derived and egg-derived inactivated subunit influenza vaccines in healthy adults. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 51:9971004.
  • 78
    Ehrlich HJ, Berezuk G, Fritsch S et al. Clinical development of a Vero cell culture-derived seasonal influenza vaccine. Vaccine 2012; 30:43774386.
  • 79
    Corti D, Voss J, Gamblin SJ et al. A neutralizing antibody selected from plasma cells that binds to group 1 and group 2 influenza A hemagglutinins. Science 2011; 333:850856.
  • 80
    Clementi N, Criscuolo E, Castelli M, Clementi M. Broad-range neutralizing anti-influenza A human monoclonal antibodies: new perspectives in therapy and prophylaxis. New Microbiol 2012; 35:399406.
  • 81
    King JC Jr, Cox MM, Reisinger K, Hedrick J, Graham I, Patriarca P. Evaluation of the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of FluBlok trivalent recombinant baculovirus-expressed hemagglutinin influenza vaccine administered intramuscularly to healthy children aged 6–59 months. Vaccine 2009; 27:65896594.
  • 82
    Treanor JJ, El Sahly H, King J et al. Protective efficacy of a trivalent recombinant hemagglutinin protein vaccine (FluBlok®) against influenza in healthy adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Vaccine 2011; 29:77337739.
  • 83
    Baxter R, Patriarca PA, Ensor K, Izikson R, Goldenthal KL, Cox MM. Evaluation of the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of FluBlok® trivalent recombinant baculovirus-expressed hemagglutinin influenza vaccine administered intramuscularly to healthy adults 50–64 years of age. Vaccine 2011; 29:22722278.
  • 84
    Jennings LC, Smith DW, Chan PK. Report of the first Asia-Pacific Forum on antiviral treatment of influenza. Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza, Bangkok, 14 June 2012. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2013; doi: 10.1111/irv.12130.
  • 85
    Osterholm MT, Ballering KS, Kelley NS. Major challenges in providing an effective and timely pandemic vaccine for influenza a(H7N9). JAMA 2013; 309:25572558.