• AS03 adjuvant;
  • HIV ;
  • pandemic H1N1 influenza;
  • vaccination


Children with HIV are especially susceptible to complications from influenza infection, and effective vaccines are central to reducing disease burden in this population. We undertook a prospective, observational study to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of the inactivated split-virion AS03-adjuvanted pandemic H1N1(2009) vaccine in children with HIV.


National referral centre for Paediatric HIV in Ireland.


Twenty four children with HIV were recruited consecutively and received two doses of the vaccine. The serological response was measured before each vaccine dose (Day 0 and Day 28) and 2 months after the booster dose. Antibody titres were measured using a haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay. Seroprotection was defined as a HAI titre ≥ 1:40; seroconversion was defined as a ≥ fourfold increase in antibody titre and a postvaccination titre ≥ 1:40.

Main outcome measures

The seroconversion rates after prime and booster doses were 75% and 71%, respectively. HIV virological suppression at the time of immunization was associated with a significantly increased seroconversion rate (= 0·009), magnitude of serological response (= 0·02) and presence of seroprotective HAI titres (= 0·017) two months after the booster dose. No other factor was significantly associated with the seroconversion/seroprotection rate. No serious adverse effects were reported. Vaccination had no impact on HIV disease progression. The AS03-adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 vaccine appears to be safe and immunogenic among HIV-infected children. A robust serological response appears to be optimized by adherence to a HAART regimen delivering virological suppression.