In June 2012, the global community made an important step to firmly establish social protection as part of national and global development strategies. The International Labour Conference unanimously adopted the Recommendation concerning national floors of social protection, 2012 (No. 202), providing concrete content to the human right to social security. This article puts the Recommendation into its historical standard setting and development policy context, reviews the emergence of the social protection floor concept, and analyses the contents of the new Recommendation and some of its political hotspots. It then explores whether the new instrument has the potential to change the social reality in the 185 ILO member States. It concludes that its adoption is an unprecedented demonstration of good will and far-reaching global social policy consensus. However, in order to help create space for national policy change, the campaign to achieve at least a minimum of social security for all needs to continue and has to be kept on the international agenda. In closing, the article lists strategies that the global coalition behind this campaign needs to pursue for social security to remain or become an inalienable objective in national and international development strategies.