Subject Index to Volume 47


Previous cumulative indexes are contained in Volume 11 (Volume 1–11), Volume 16 (Volumes 12–16), Volume 21 (Volumes 17–21), Volume 26 (Volumes 22–26), Volume 29 (Volumes 27–29), Volume 34 (Volumes 30–34) and Volume 39 (Volumes 35–39). From Volume 40 onwards each volume contains its own index. In the present index figures in bold indicate the volume number. Plates are indicated by (Pl) after the relevant page number(s). Where the name of a town, country or region is indexed this refers to the zoo(s), aquarium(s) or other institutions in that town, country or region. Animal species covered at any length in the text are cross-referenced from the vernacular to the scientific name and the main reference to the species appears under the scientific name and/or the name of the institution concerned.

A

 Abrams Creek, 47, 141

 Abyssocottidae, 47, 57

 Acanthuridae, 47, 57

 Acer, 47, 227

 Acestrorhynchidae, 47, 56

 Acheta domestica, reward item, 47, 173, 174

 Achiridae, 47, 54

 Acipenser spp, 47, 17, 36, 142

 Acipenser dabryanus, 47, 26

 Acipenser fulvescens, 47, 4, 32, 35, 95

   fishes, fresh water, conservation,

     reintroduction programmes, Tennessee Aquarium Conservation Institute, 47, 140–150(Pl)

 Acipenser mikadoi, 47, 18

 Acipenseridae, 47, 51, 52, 142

 Acipenseriformes, 47, 21, 50

 Actinobacteria, 47, 102

 Actinopterygii, 47, 49

 Addax, see Addax nasomaculatus

 Addax nasomaculatus, 47, 213

 Adrianichthyidae, 47, 54

 Aepyceros melampus, 47, 216

 Ailuropoda melanoleuca, 47, 19

 Akysidae, 47, 56

 Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP), Qatar, 47, 183

   herds, management,

     density dependence, conceptual approach, zoos, 47, 208–218

 Alburnus chalcoides aralensis, 47, 18

 Alces alces, 47, 211

 Alder, see Alnus

 Alestidae, 47, 53

 Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE), 47, 19

 Alnus, 47, 227

 Alosa spp, 47, 25, 36

 Alosa alosa, 47, 99

 Amarinus lacustris, 47, 120

 Amblycipitidae, 47, 54

 Amblyopsidae, 47, 53

 Amblypharyngodon spp, 47, 72

 Ambassidae, 47, 54

 Ameca splendens, 47, 59, 97, 99, 104

 Ameiurus nebulosus, 47, 22

 Amiidae, 47, 57

 Amiiformes, 47, 57

 Amphiliidae, 47, 53

 Amplexus,

   Ceratophrys stolzmanni, reproduction, husbandry, development, 47, 151–162(Pl)

 Anabantidae, 47, 53

 Anabarilius graham, 47, 35

 anablepid, 47, 66

 Anablepidae, 47, 57

 Anchariidae, 47, 57

 anchovy, 47, 66

 Angelfish, see Pterophyllum spp

 Anguilla spp, 47, 25

 Anguilla anguilla, 47, 33, 36

 Anguilla australis, 47, 3

   fishes, fresh water, conservation,

     breeding, Mahurangi Technical Institute (MTI), 47, 120–128(Pl)

 Anguilla dieffenbachii, 47, 121

 Anguilla reinhardtii, 47, 121

 Anguillidae, 47, 55

 Anguilliformes, 47, 57

 Anostomidae, 47, 56

 Antelope, Beira, see Dorcatragus megalotis

 Antilope cervicapra, 47, 213

 Antilopinae, 47, 210

 Aphanius dispar, 47, 104

 Aphanius transgrediens, 47, 104

 Aphredoderidae, 47, 57

 Aplocheilidae, 47, 53

 Apogonidae, 47, 56

 Apteronotidae, 47, 56

 Aquarium at Moody Gardens, Galveston, TX, USA, 47, 34, 116, 117

 Aquarium Rhodes, Greece, 47, 99

 Aquazoo, Löbbecke Museum, Dusseldorf, Germany, 47, 35, 99

 Arapaima gigas, 47, 95

 Arapaimidae, 47, 54

 Arapaimidae, 47, 66

 Argulus coregoni, fish lice, 47, 134

 Ariidae, 47, 54

 arowana, 47, 66

 Artemia salina, food, 47, 97, 98

 Aspius aspius iblioides, 47, 18

 Aspredinidae, 47, 56

 Astatotilapia piceata, see Haplochromis piceatus

 Astroblepidae, 47, 56

 Ataeniobius toweri, 47, 97, 104

 Atelopus, 47, 161

 Atherinidae, 47, 53

 Atherinopsidae, 47, 55

 Auchenipteridae, 47, 56

 Austroglanididae, 47, 51, 52

 Avian Biotech, USA, 47, 187

B

 Baboon, see Papio sp

 Bacillus anthracis, infection, 47, 216

 Badidae, 47, 53

 Bagridae, 47, 55

 Balaeniceps rex,

   guidelines, management, husbandry, 47, 181–189(Pl)

 Balitoridae, 47, 53

 Bamboo, see Bambuseae

 Bambuseae, 47, 184

 Barb, Blackspot, see Puntius filamentosus; Chalakkudy, see Puntius chalakkudiensis; Curmuca, see Hypselobarbus curmuca; Denison's, see Puntius denisonii; Korhi, see Hypselobarbus micropogon; Long finned, see Osteochilichthys longidorsalis; Mascara, see Puntius assimilis; Melon, see Puntius fasciatus; Periyar, see Hypselobarbus periyarensis; Setna's, see Puntius setnai; Tambraparni, see Puntius tambraparniei

 Barbel, Golden-line, see Sinocyclocheilus graham

 Barbus spp, 47, 9

 Baril, Jerdon's, see Barilius canarensis

 Barilius canarensis, 47, 74

 Barramundi, see Lates calcarifer

 Bass, Pumpkinseed, see Lepomis gibbosus

 Batrachoididae, 47, 54

 Bedotiidae, 47, 51, 52

 Belo Horizonte Zoo, Brazil,

   Rhea americana, enrichment, environmental, 47, 163–170

 Belonidae, 47, 55

 Bengal, Bay of, 47, 71

 bichir, 47, 19

 Billfish, Specialist Group, 47, 32

 Bioblitz, initiative, 47, 36

 BioFresh, 47, 36, 59

 Bison, see Bison bison

 Bison bison, 47, 206

 Blackbuck, see Antilope cervicapra

 Blenniidae, 47, 54

 blenny, kelp, 47, 51

 Blue-eye, Redfinned, see Scaturiginichthys vermeilipinnis

 Bonorong Wildlife Sanctuary, Australia, 47, 194

 Boselaphus tragocamelus, 47, 213

 Botia striata, 47, 74

 Brachionus pliciatillis, rotifer, food, 47, 124

 Brachydanio rerio, 47, 11, 24

 Brachyplatystoma spp, 47, 68

 Brazil,

   Brucella abortus, Brucella canis, wild felids, captive, 47, 204–207

 Breeding, captive,

   Saimiri boliviensis, epilepsy, management, ZSL London Zoo, 47, 200–203

 Brink of Extinction, initiative, 47, 36, 37

 Bristol Zoo, UK, 47, 58, 99

 brotula, viviparous, 47, 51

 Brucella, gram-negative, bacteria, 47, 204, 205, 206

 Brucella abortus,

   wild felids, captive, Brazil, 47, 204–207

 Brucella canis,

   wild felids, captive, Brazil, 47, 204–207

 Brucella melitensis, 47, 204

 Brucella neotomae, 47, 204

 Brucella ovis, 47, 204, 205

 Brucella suis, 47, 204

 Brucellosis,

   wild felids, captive, Brazil, 47, 204–207

 Bryconidae, 47, 57

 Buffalo, African, see Syncerus caffer

 Bully, Common, see Gobiomorphus cotidianus; Cran's, see Gobiomorphus basalis; Giant, see Gobiomorphus gobioides; Redfin, see Gobiomorphus huttoni

 Bythitidae, 47, 51, 53

C

 Callichthyidae, 47, 56

 Callionymidae, 47, 57

 Callitropsis nootkatensis, 47, 227

 candirus, parasitic, see Vandellia spp

 Canis lupus familiaris, 47, 164

 Capelin, see Mallotus villosus

 Capra aegagrus, 47, 213

 Capra nubiana, 47, 213

 Carangidae, 47, 57

 Carassius, 47, 13

 Carcharhinidae, 47, 52

 Carinotetraodon travancoricus, 47, 74

 Carp, 47, 13, 17, 51, 68, 78; see also Carassius; Cyprinus; Cyprinus carpio; Barbless, see Cyprinus pellegrini; Common, see Cyprinus carpio; Grass, see Ctenopharyngodon idella; Mrigal, see Cirrhinus cirrhosis, Cirrhinus mrigala; Silver, see Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

 Carpinus, 47, 227

 Catfish, 47, 12, 13, 15, 17, 66; see also Brachyplatystoma spp; Horabagrus spp; Mystus spp; Phreatobius spp; Amazon sailfin, see Pterygoplichthys pardalis; Brown bullhead, see Ameiurus nebulosus; Dog-eating, see Pangasius sanitwongsei; Günther's, see Horabagrus brachysoma; Imperial white-collared yellow, see Horabagrus nigricollaris; Mekong giant, see Pangasianodon gigas; North African, see Clarias gariepinus; Orinoco sailfin, see Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus; Sun, see Horabagrus brachysoma

   armoured, 47, 66, 68

   austroglandid, 47, 51

   clariid, invasive, 47, 68

   ictalurid, invasive, 47, 68

 Catla, see Catla catla

 Catla catla, invasive, 47, 75

 Catostomidae, 47, 55

 Centrarchidae, 47, 55

 Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios, 47, 153

 Centrolophidae, 47, 57

 Centropomidae, 47, 55

 Cephalaspidomorphi, 47, 49

 Ceratodontiformes, 47, 57

 Ceratophryinae, 47, 151–162(Pl)

 Ceratophrys, 47, 151, 159, 160, 161

 Ceratophrys calcarata, 47, 159

 Ceratophrys cornuta, 47, 151, 156, 158, 159, 161

 Ceratophrys cranwelli, 47, 152, 159

 Ceratophrys ornata, 47, 151, 152, 158, 159, 160

 Ceratophrys stolzmanni,

   husbandry, reproduction, development, amplexus, 47, 151–162(Pl)

 Ceratophrys stolzmanni scaphiopeza, 47, 152

 Ceratophrys stolzmanni stolzmanni, 47, 152

 Cervus elaphus nelsonii, 47, 206

 Cetopsidae, 47, 57

 Chacidae, 47, 55

 Chacophrys pierottii, 47, 159

 Chalceidae, 47, 57

 Chanidae, 47, 57

 Channa spp, 47, 72

 Channa diplogramma, 47, 74

 Channidae, 47, 53

 Chapalichthys pardalis, 47, 97

 Characidae, 47, 56

 Characiformes, 47, 57, 66

 characin, 47, 17, 66

 Characodon, Rainbow, see Characodon lateralis

 Characodon lateralis, 47, 104

 Chaudhuriidae, 47, 54

 Charr, Arctic, see Salvelinus alpinus

 Cheimarrichthyidae, 47, 57

 Chela, Malabar hatchet, see Laubuca fasciata

 Chester Zoo, UK, see North of England Zoological Society

 Chiba City Zoological Park, Japan, 47, 183, 187

 Chico Mendes Institute for Conservation of Biodiversity (ICMBio), Brasilia, Brazil, 47, 34, 69

 Chilodontidae, 47, 57

 Chimaeriformes, 47, 57

 Chinkara, see Gazella bennettii

 Chondrichthyes, 47, 49, 50

 chordate, 47, 18

 Chub, see Leuciscus cephalus

 Cichla, invasive, 47, 68

 Cichlasoma, invasive, 47, 76

 Cichlid, 47, 13, 15, 18, 34, 59, 66, 72; see also Cichlasoma; Etroplus; Hemichromis; African, see Cichlidae

   haplochromine, 47, 3, 22, 23, 36, 112–119

   tilapiine, invasive, 47, 22

 Cichlidae, 47, 51, 53, 65, 94; as food 185

 Ciconiidae, 47, 181

 Ciconiiforme, 47, 181

 Cirrhinus cirrhosus, 47, 74

 Cirrhinus mrigala, invasive, 47, 75

 Citharinidae, 47, 53

 Clarias gariepinus, invasive, 47, 75

 Clariidae, 47, 53

 Claroteidae, 47, 53

 Climate change,

   fishes, fresh water,

     challenges, 47, 28–29

     conservation, considerations, zoos, aquariums, 47, 81–92

     threat, 47, 6, 20, 23, 25, 31, 35

 Clinidae, 47, 51, 52

 Clupeidae, 47, 53

 Clupeiformes, 47, 57

 Cobitidae, 47, 54

 Colossoma, invasive, 47, 68

 Colossoma brachypomum, invasive, 47, 76

 Comephoridae, 47, 57

 Conorhynchos conirostris, 47, 57

 Coregonus, 47, 132

 Coregonus albula, 47, 3, 94

   fishes, fresh water, ex situ, in situ, assisted reproduction, Scotland, 47, 129–139(Pl)

 Coregonus clupeoides, 47, 138

 Coregonus lavaretus, 47, 3

   fishes, fresh water, ex situ, in situ, assisted reproduction, Scotland, 47, 129–139(Pl)

 Coregonus pennantii, 47, 138

 Coregonus stigmaticus, 47, 138

 Coregonus vandesius, 47, 138

 Coreius guichenoti, 47, 26

 Cottidae, 47, 54

 Cottocomephoridae, 47, 57

 Cottonwood, see Populus

 crab, 47, 48

 Crab, Freshwater, see Amarinus lacustris

 Cranoglanididae, 47, 55

 crayfish, 47, 22, 48

 Crayfish, Rusty, see Orconectes rusticus

 Crenuchidae, 47, 56

 Crickets, see Acheta domestica

 Ctenoluciidae, 47, 55

 Ctenopharyngodon idella, 47, 120

 Ctenopharyngodon idella, invasive, 47, 22

 Cualac tessellatus, 47, 97, 104

 Curimatidae, 47, 56

 Cynodontidae, 47, 55

 Cynoglossidae, 47, 54

 Cyprinid, 47, 13, 15, 35, 73; see also Amblypharyngodon spp; Hypselobarbus spp; Labeo spp; Tor spp

 Cyprinidae, 47, 12, 51, 53, 77, 141

 Cypriniformes, 47, 57

 Cyprinodon spp, 47, 100

 Cyprinodon alvarezi, 47, 97, 99, 104, 108

 Cyprinodon diabolis, 47, 33

 Cyprinodon longidorsalis, 47, 99, 104, 105, 106

 Cyprinodon macularius, 47, 108

 Cyprinodon veronicae, 47, 99

 cyprinodontid, 47, 66

 Cyprinodontidae, 47, 54

 Cyprinodontiformes, 47, 57, 59

 Cyprinus, 47, 13

 Cyprinus carpio, 47, 21, 75; as food 185

 Cyprinus pellegrini, 47, 35

D

 Dactyloscopidae, 47, 57

 Dallas World Aquarium, TX, USA, 47, 183, 187

 Dam,

   Balbina, hydrolecteric, 47, 68

   Belo Monte, hydroelectric, 47, 68

   Douglas, 47, 143

   Fomi, 47, 29

   Galloway Hydro-Electric Scheme, 47, 130

   Idukki, 47, 73

   Jirau, 47, 68

   Loch Sloy Hydro-Electric Scheme, 47, 132

   Nagarjuna Sagar, 47, 73

   Santo Antônio, 47, 68

   threat, fishes, 47, 2, 6, 20, 25–26, 29, 67–68

   Three Gorges, 47, 26, 51

 Daphnia sp, food, 47, 97, 124

 Dasyatidae, 47, 53

 Dasyatis laosensis, 47, 36

 Dasyurus viverrinus, 47, 191, 196

 Datnioididae, 47, 54

 Deer, White-tailed, see Odocoileus virginianus

 Denticipitidae, 47, 51, 52

 Desert Fishes, program, 47, 100

 Devil, Tasmanian, see Sarcophilus harrisii

 Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), 47, 190, 194

 Dik dik, Phillip's, see Madoqua saltiana phillipsi

 Diplomystidae, 47, 54

 Diptera, larvae, food, 47, 97

 Distichodontidae, 47, 53

 Dog, feral, see Canis lupus familiaris

 dolphin, fresh water, 47, 20

 Doradidae, 47, 56

 Dorcatragus megalotis, 47, 213, 214

 Doune Ponds, see Ponds, Doune

 Drosophila melanogaster, food, 47, 97

 drum, 47, 66

 drumfish, 47, 17, 32

 Disney's Animal Kingdom, Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA, 47, 171, 172, 174, 179

E

 Ecosystem, services, 47, 1–5, 13–14, 18, 81, 83

 Edinburgh Zoo, UK,

   Leptoptilos crumeniferus, positive-reinforcement, training, husbandry, 47, 171–180(Pl)

 Eel, 47, 13, 17, 66

   Anguillid, Specialist Subgroup, 47, 2, 32

   electric, 47, 66

 Eel, see Anguilla spp; European, see Anguilla anguilla; Shortfin, see Anguilla australis; Longfin, see Anguilla dieffenbachii

 Eichhornia crassipes, aquatic weed, invasive, 47, 22, 23, 76

 elasmobranch, 47, 33

 Elassomatidae, 47, 55

 Electrophorus, 47, 66

 Eleginopsidae, 47, 57

 Eleotridae, 47, 55

 Elk, see Cervus elaphus nelsonii

 Ellopostomatidae, 47, 51, 52

 Elopidae, 47, 54

 Elopiformes, 47, 57

 Embiotocidae, 47, 57

 Encephalitozoon cuniculi, 47, 200, 201, 202

 Enchytraeus buchholzi, food, 47, 97

 Engraulidae, 47, 54

 Enrichment, environmental,

   Rhea americana, Belo Horizonte Zoo, 47, 163–170

 Ephippidae, 47, 57

 Erethistidae, 47, 53

 Erythrinidae, 47, 57

 Esocidae, 47, 54

 Esox spp, 47, 21

 Esox lucius, 47, 134, 135

 Etroplus, 47, 71, 72

 Etroplus canarensis, 47, 73

 Etroplus suratensis, 47, 77

 Eudorcas rufifrons, 47, 213

 Eudorcas thomsoni, 47, 213

 Europe,

   fishes, fresh water,

     conservation, breeding, management, 47, 93–101

 European Endangered species Programme (EEP), 47, 86

   participation, suitability, 47, 23, 220

   Saimiri boliviensis, 47, 200

 euryhaline, fish, 47, 17, 33

 Evaluation,

   development strategy, Municipal Zoological Garden, Lodz, Poland, 47, 219–230

 Exhibits, site,

   evaluation, development strategy, Municipal Zoological Garden, Lodz, Poland, 47, 219–230

F

 Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil, 47, 204, 205

 Ferret, Black footed, see Mustela nigripes

 Finch, Galapagos, 47, 23

 Fish, blind cave, see Garra spp; Japanese rice, see Oryzias latipes; mosquito, see Gambusia spp, Gambusia holbrooki

 Fish, Coral Reef, Specialist Group, 47, 32

 Fish Ark,

   goodeid, Mexican, livebearing, 47, 33, 58, 99

 Fish Conservation Centre, UK, 47, 3

 Fish Net, ZSL, 47, 59, 85

 fish, rainbow, 47, 51

 Fishes, fresh water, conservation,

   Anguilla australis, breeding, Mahurangi Technical Institute, 47, 120–128(Pl)

   climate change, considerations, zoos, aquariums, 47, 81–92

   Coregonus albula, ex situ, in situ, assisted reproduction, Scotland, 47, 129–139(Pl)

   Coregonus lavaretus, ex situ, in situ, assisted reproduction, Scotland, 47, 129–139(Pl)

   Europe, breeding, management, 47, 93–101

   Galaxias argenteus, breeding, Mahurangi Technical Institute, 47, 120–128(Pl)

   global challenges, perspectives, 47, 6–45(Pl)

   Haplochromis piceatus, husbandry, 20 year retrospective, 47, 112–119(Pl)

   introduction, 47, 1–5

   IUCN, global assessment, status, 47, 46–64

   Mycobacterium spp, biosecurity, management, breeding, 47, 102–111

   reintroduction programmes, Tennessee Aquarium Conservation Institute, 47, 140–150(Pl)

   Salvelinus alpinus, ex situ, in situ, assisted reproduction, Scotland, 47, 129–139(Pl)

   South America, 47, 65–70

   Western Ghats, India, 47, 71–80

 flatfish, 47, 17, 66

 Flea, water, see Daphnia sp

 Fly, Fruit, see Drosophila melanogaster

 Forest, Atlantic, 47, 67

 4 Major Rivers, Project, 47, 26

 Freshwater Biodiversity Unit, Cambridge, UK, 47, 2, 46–64

 Freshwater Fish Specialist Group (FFSG), 47, 1, 2, 7, 32, 37, 48, 49, 58

 Frog, Amazonian horned, see Ceratophrys cornuta; Chacoan horned, see Ceratophrys cranwelli; Ornate horned, see Ceratophrys ornate; Pacific horned, see Ceratophrys stolzmanni; Paraguay horned, see Chacophrys pierottii; Venezuelan horned, see Ceratophrys calcarata

 Fulu, Pitch-black, see Haplochromis piceatus

 Fundulidae, 47, 55

 Fundulus julisia, 47, 4

   fishes, fresh water, conservation,

     reintroduction programmes, Tennessee Aquarium Conservation Institute, 47, 140–150(Pl)

G

 Gadidae, 47, 57

 Gadiformes, 47, 57

 Galati Aquarium, Romania, 47, 99

 Galaxias argenteus, 47, 3

   fishes, fresh water, conservation,

     breeding, Mahurangi Technical Institute (MTI), 47, 120–128(Pl)

 Galaxias brevipinnis, 47, 120

 Galaxias fasciatus, 47, 120, 125

 Galaxias postvectis, 47, 120

 galaxiid, 47, 18, 22, 32

 Galaxiidae, 47, 54

 Gambusia spp, invasive, 47, 22

 Gambusia affinis, invasive, 47, 75, 145, 146

 Gambusia holbrooki, invasive, 47, 84

 Garra spp, 47, 33

 Gasteropelecidae, 47, 57

 Gasterosteidae, 47, 53

 Gazella bennettii, 47, 213

 Gazella dorcas spp, 47, 213

 Gazella dorcas pelzelni, 47, 213, 214

 Gazella gazella, 47, 213, 214

 Gazella spekei, 47, 210, 213, 214, 216

 Gazella subgutturosa marica, 47, 213

 Gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa, 47, 213

 Gazelle, Arabian sand, see Gazella subgutturosa marica; Dama, see Nanger dama ruficollis; Dorcas, see Gazella dorcas; Grant's, see Nanger granti; Mountain, see Gazella gazella; Pelzeln's, see Gazella dorcas pelzelni; Persian, see Gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa; Red-fronted, see Eudorcas rufifrons; Soemmerring's, see Nanger soemmerringii; Somali soemmerring, see Nanger soemmerringii berberana; Speke's, see Gazella spekei; Thomson's, see Eudorcas thomsoni

 Gene bank, live, 47, 79

 Geotriidae, 47, 57

 Gerenuk, see Litocranius walleri

 Gerreidae, 47, 55

 gill maggot, see Salmincola edwardsii

 Girardinichthys viviparus, 47, 104, 105

 Gizani, see Ladigesocypris ghigii

 Goat, Wild, see Capra aegagrus

 Gobiesocidae, 47, 57

 Gobiesociformes, 47, 57

 Gobiidae, 47, 55

 Gobiomorphus basalis, 47, 120

 Gobiomorphus cotidianus, 47, 120

 Gobiomorphus gobioides, 47, 120

 Gobiomorphus huttoni, 47, 120

 goby, 47, 17, 66

 goldfish, 47, 13; see also Cyprinidae

 Gonorynchidae, 47, 57

 Gonorynchiformes, 47, 57

 Goodeid, Bluetail, see Ataeniobius toweri

 Goodeid, Mexican, livebearing, Fish Ark, 47, 33, 59, 60

 Goodeidae, 47, 54, 94

 gourami, see Osphronemidae; Day's spike tailed, see Pseudosphromenus dayi

 Grass, Elephant, see Pennisetum purpureum; Fakahatchee, see Tripsacum dactyloides

 Grouper, Specialist Group, 47, 32

 Grouse, Red, see Lagopus lagopus scoticus

 grunt, 47, 32

 Gryllus sp assimilis complex, food, 47, 154, 156

 Gudgeon, Largemouth bronze, see Coreius guichenoti

 Guidelines,

   Balaeniceps rex, management, husbandry, 47, 181–189(Pl)

 Gulf of Guayaquil, 47, 152

 Guppy, Pitch Lake, see Poecilia reticulata

 Gymnarchidae, 47, 52

 Gymnocephalus cernuus, 47, 132

 Gymnocorymbus ternetzi, 47, 24

 Gymnotidae, 47, 56

 Gymnotiformes, 47, 66

 Gyrinocheilidae, 47, 54

H

 Haemulidae, 47, 55

 halfbeak, Sulawesi, see Hemiramphidae

 Hamburg Zoo, Germany, 47, 229

 Hamerkop, see Ciconiiforme

 Hanover Zoo, Germany, 47, 229

 Haplochromine, snail eating, 47, 23

 Haplochromis Ecology Study Team (HEST), Leiden, the Netherlands, 47, 22

 Haplochromis cinereus, 47, 113

 Haplochromis macrops, 47, 113

 Haplochromis piceatus, 47, 3

   fishes, fresh water, husbandry, conservation, 47, 112–119(Pl)

 Hare, Snowshoe, see Lepus americanus

 hawkfish, 47, 32

 Helostomatidae, 47, 57

 Hemibagrus punctatus, 47, 74

 Hemichromis, invasive, 47, 76

 Hemiodontidae, 47, 56

 Hemiramphidae, 47, 55, 94

 Hepsetidae, 47, 54

 Heptapteridae, 47, 56

 Herds,

   management, conceptual approach,

     density dependence, zoos, 47, 208–218

 Heron, see Ciconiiforme

 herring, denticle, 47, 51

 Heteropneustidae, 47, 54

 Hiodontidae, 47, 57

 Hippotraginae, 47, 210

 Horabagrus spp, 47, 72

 Horabagrus brachysoma, 47, 74

 Horabagrus nigricollaris, 47, 74

 Horaglanis spp, 47, 16

 Hornbeam, see Carpinus

 Houston Zoo, TX, USA, 47, 183, 184

 houting, 47, 36

 Hucho spp, 47, 32–33

 Hucho taimen, 47, 18, 36

 Husbandry, reproduction, development,

   Ceratophrys stolzmanni, amplexus, 47, 151–162(Pl)

 Hyacinth, Water, see Eichhornia crassipes

 Hybognathus amarus, 47, 34

 Hypancistrus zebra, 47, 68

 Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, 47, 120

 Hypopomidae, 47, 56

 Hypselobarbus spp, 47, 72, 78

 Hypselobarbus curmuca, 47, 74

 Hypselobarbus micropogon, 47, 74

 Hypselobarbus periyarensis, 47, 74

I

 Ibex, Nubian, see Capra nubiana

 Ibis, see Ciconiiforme

 Ictaluridae, 47, 54

 Iguanodectidae, 47, 57

 Impala, see Aepyceros melampus

 Indostomidae, 47, 51, 52

 Indostomus spinosus, 47, 52

 Institute for Molecular Diagnostics Bielefeld (IMDB), Germany, 47, 187

 Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), 47, 206

 Inter Basin Water Transfer, Project, India, 47, 73

 Invasive,

   carp, 47, 68

   catfish, clariid, 47, 68

   catfish, ictalurid, 47, 68

   Catla catla, 47, 75

   Cichla, 47, 68

   Cichlasoma, 47, 76

   cichlid, tilapiine, 47, 22

   Cirrhinus mrigala, 47, 75

   Clarias gariepinus, 47, 75

   Colossoma, 47, 68

   Colossoma brachypomum, 47, 76

   Ctenopharyngodon idella, 47, 22

   Cyprinus carpio, 47, 75

   Eichhornia crassipes, 47, 22, 76

   Gambusia spp, 47, 22

   Gambusia affinis, 47, 75, 145, 146

   Gambusia holbrooki, 47, 84

   Hemichromis, 47, 76

   Labeo rohita, 47, 75

   Lates niloticus, 47, 21, 22, 23

   Orconectes rusticus, 47, 22

   Oreochromis mossambicus, 47, 75

   Oreochromis niloticus, 47, 75

   Poecilia reticulata, 47, 75

   Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps, 47, 76

   Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus, 47, 76

   Pterygoplichthys pardalis, 47, 76

   Salmo trutta, 47, 22

   salmon, 47, 68

   Salmonidae, 75

   tilapia, 47, 68

   trout, 47, 68, 75

   water weed, 47, 11

 Invasive species, 47, 11, 21–23, 35, 68, 75–76, 84–85

   Specialist Group, 47, 21

 IUCN,

   fishes, fresh water, conservation, global assessment, status, 47, 46–64

 Izu Natural History Park (Izu Shaboten Kohen), Japan, 47, 183

 Izu Shaboten Kohen, see Izu Natural History Park

J

 jack, 47, 17

 Jaguar, see Panthera onca

 Jenkinson's Aquarium, Point Pleasant, NJ, USA, 47, 116

 Juniperus chinensis, 47, 227

 Jurong BirdPark, Singapore, 47, 183, 184

K

 Kangaroo, Red, see Macropus rufus

 killifish, 47, 59

 Killifish, Anatolian, see Aphanius transgrediens; Arabian, see Aphanius dispar; Corfu, see Valencia letourneuxi

 Kneriidae, 47, 52

 knifefish, 47, 66

 Koaro, see Galaxias brevipinnis

 Kobus leche kafuensis, 47, 206

 Kokopu, Banded, see Galaxias fasciatus; Giant, see Galaxias argenteus; Shortjaw, see Galaxias postvectis

 Kraemeriidae, 47, 54

 Kryptoglanis shajii, 47, 57

 Kudu, Greater, see Tragelaphus strepsiceros; Kudu, Lesser, see Tragelaphus imberbis

 Kuhliidae, 47, 56

 Kurtidae, 47, 54

L

 Labeo, Deccan, see Labeo potail

 Labeo spp, 47, 12(Pl), 72, 78

 Labeo potail, 47, 74

 Labeo rohita, invasive, 47, 75

 Lacantuniidae, 47, 57

 Ladigesocypris ghigii, 47, 99

 Lagopus lagopus scoticus, 47, 211

 Lake,

   Barombi Mbo, 47, 94

   Bassenthwaite, 47, 134, 135, 136

   Chilika, 47, 13

   crater, Hanon Maar, 47, 20

   Derwent Water, 47, 134, 136

   Dianchi, 47, 35

   Malawi, 47, 112

   Taal, 47, 27

   Tanganyika, 47, 112

   Vembanad, 47, 75

   Victoria, 47, 18, 36, 94

     cichlid, Species Survival Plan (LVSSP), East Africa, 47, 112–119

   Victoria-Kyoga, 47, 3, 22, 23, 34

 Lakes, Great,

   African, 47, 59

   North America, 47, 27–28

 Lampetra fluviatilis, 47, 99

 Lamprey, River, see Lampetra fluviatilis

 Lateolabracidae, 47, 57

 Lates calcarifer, 47, 12

 Lates niloticus, 47, 12, 22, 23; invasive, 47, 21, 22, 23

 Latidae, 47, 53

 Laubuca fasciata, 47, 74

 leaf-fish, 47, 66

 Lebiasinidae, 47, 56

 Lechwe, Kafue, see Kobus leche kafuensis

 Leiden University, the Netherlands, 47, 22, 115, 117, 118

 Leiognathidae, 47, 57

 Leopardus pardalis,

   Brucella abortus, Brucella canis, captive, 47, 204–207

 Lepidobatrachus spp, 47, 159, 160, 161

 Lepidogalaxiidae, 47, 52

 Lepidopygopsis typus, 47, 74

 Lepidosirenidae, 47, 57, 66

 Lepidosireniformes, 47, 57

 Lepisosteidae, 47, 57

 Lepisosteiformes, 47, 57

 Lepomis gibbosus, 47, 22

 Leptobramidae, 47, 57

 Leptoptilos crumeniferus,

   positive-reinforcement, training, husbandry, Edinburgh Zoo, 47, 171–180(Pl)

 Lepus americanus, 47, 211

 Leuciscus cephalus, 47, 134

 Lice, fish, see Argulus coregoni

 Life Raft for Frogs, 47, 153

 Lily, Fringed water, see Nymphoides peltata

 Lion, see Panthera leo

 Litocranius walleri, 47, 212, 213

 livebearer, Mexican, see Goodeidae

 Livistona chinensis, 47, 184

 loach, river, 47, 51

 Loach, Dwarf clown, see Yasuhikotakia sidthimunki; Periyar, see Travancoria elongata; Shimoga, see Nemachilichthys shimogensis; Zebra, see Botia striata

 Loch,

   Black, 47, 138

   Builg, 47, 130

   Castle, 47, 134

   Doon, 47, 130, 131, 137, 138

   Dungeon, 47, 130

   Earn, 47, 135

   Eck, 47, 130, 132–133, 136, 138

   Enoch, 47, 130

   Girlsta, 47, 130

   Grannoch, 47, 130

   Insh, 47, 130

   Katrine, 47, 132

   Lomond, 47, 132–134, 138

   Mill, 47, 134–135, 137

   Skeen, 47, 135, 136, 137

   Sloy, 47, 133, 134, 137

   St Mary's, 47, 131, 138

   Valley, 47, 135, 137, 138

 Lodz Zoo, see Municipal Zoological Garden, Lodz, Poland

 Logperch, Conasauga, see Percina jenkinsi

 Loricariid, 47, 66

 Loricariidae, 47, 56, 66

 Lotidae, 47, 52

 Luciobarbus brachycephalus brachycephalus, 47, 18

 Luciobarbus capito conocephalus, 47, 18

 lungfish, 47, 15, 19, 66; see also Protopterus spp

 Lutjanidae, 47, 57

M

 Mackerel, see Scomber scombrus

 Macropus rufus, 47, 191, 196

 Madoqua saltiana phillipsi, 47, 210, 213, 215

 Mahseer, see Tor sp; Malabar, see Tor malabaricus

 Mahurangi Technical Institute (MTI), Warkworth, New Zealand,

   fishes, fresh water, conservation,

     Anguilla australis, 47, 120–128(Pl)

     Galaxias argenteus, 47, 120–128(Pl)

 Malacanthidae, 47, 57

 Malapteruridae, 47, 53

 Mallotus villosus, food, 47, 185

 Management,

   herds,

     density dependence, conceptual approach, zoos, 47, 208–218

   fishes, fresh water,

     breeding, conservation, Mycobacterium spp, biosecurity, 47, 102–111

     native, exotic, Europe, 47, 93–101

 Maple, see Acer

 Marsupials,

   milk replacers, composition, fatty acid, amino acid, mineral, 47, 190–199

 Mastacembelidae, 47, 53

 Mealworm, see Tenebrio molitor

 Medaka, see Oryzias latipes

 Megalopidae, 47, 57

 Megupsilon sp, 47, 100

 Melanotaeniidae, 47, 54

 Melbourne Zoo, Australia, 47, 220

 Merlangius merlangus, food, 47, 185

 Mexican Fish Ark programme, 47, 33, 58, 99

 micro-cyprinid, see Paedocypris spp

 Microdesmidae, 47, 52

 Migration,

   aquatic fauna, 47, 93

   fishes, 47, 7, 13, 15, 25, 26, 29, 35, 36, 49, 57, 60, 67–68, 73, 77, 83, 84

     Acipenser spp, 47, 17

     Anguilla australis, 47, 121–122

     Galaxias argenteus, 47, 123

     Hucho spp, 47, 32–33

     Pangasianodon gigas, 47, 33, 95

     population, 47, 208

     Salvelinus alpinus, 47, 130

 Milk replacers,

   marsupials, composition, fatty acid, amino acid, mineral, 47, 190–199

 minnow, 47, 51

 Minnow, Rio Grande silvery, see Hybognathus amarus; White, see Anabarilius graham

 Mochokidae, 47, 53

 mollusc, 47, 48

 Monkey, Black-capped squirrel, see Saimiri boliviensis; Squirrel, see Saimiri

 Monodactylidae, 47, 57

 Monterey Bay Aquarium, CA, USA, 47, 77

 Moody Gardens Aquarium, see Aquarium at Moody Gardens

 Moose, see Alces alces

 Mordaciidae, 47, 57

 Moringuidae, 47, 57

 mormyrid, 47, 12, 17

 Mormyridae, 47, 53

 Moronidae, 47, 53

 Mortality, population size,

   herds, management, conceptual approach,

     density dependence, zoos, 47, 208–218

 Mosquitofish, Western, see Gambusia affinis

 Mouflon, European, see Ovis orientalis musimon; Laristan, see Ovis orientalis laristanica

 Mouse, see Mus musculus

 Mr Goodfish, 47, 36

 Mudminnow, European, see Umbra krameri

 mudskipper, see Periophthalmus spp

 Mugilidae, 47, 55

 mullet, 47, 66

 Municipal Zoological Garden, Lodz, Poland,

   evaluation, development strategy, 47, 219–230

 Muraenesocidae, 47, 57

 Muraenidae, 47, 57

 Mus musculus, food, 47, 154

 Mustela nigripes, 47, 216

 Mycobacteria, see Mycobacterium spp

 Mycobacteriaceae, 47, 102

 Mycobacteriosis, see Mycobacterium spp

 Mycobacterium spp, 47, 3, 29, 98, 115

   fishes, fresh water, conservation, biosecurity, management, breeding, 47, 102–111

 Mycobacterium barrassiae, 47, 105

 Mycobacterium chelonae, 47, 105

 Mycobacterium fortuitum, 47, 104, 105

 Mycobacterium genavense, 47, 105

 Mycobacterium lentiflavum, 47, 105

 Mycobacterium manitobense, 47, 105

 Mycobacterium marinum, 47, 105

 Mycobacterium moriokaense, 47, 105

 Mycobacterium stomatepiae, 47, 105

 Mycobacterium ulcerans, 47, 105

 Mycteria spp, 47, 185

 Mystus spp, 47, 72

 Mystus, Nilgiri, see Hemibagrus punctatus

N

 Nandidae, 47, 54

 Nanger dama ruficollis, 47, 210, 213, 214, 215

 Nanger granti, 47, 213

 Nanger soemmerringii, 47, 210, 212

 Nanger soemmerringii berberana, 47, 213

 National Fisheries Resources Research Institute (NaFIRRI), Uganda, 47, 22, 34

 Nationalpark Donau Auen, Austria, 47, 99

 needlefish, 47, 66

 Nemacheilidae, 47, 57

 Nemachilichthys shimogensis, 47, 74

 Nematogenyidae, 47, 57

 Neoceratodontidae, 47, 57

 Neotropical, fishes, fresh water, 47, 65–70

 New England Aquarium, Boston, MA, USA, 47, 22, 34, 116

 New York Aquarium, NY, USA, 47, 116, 117, 118

 Nilgai, see Boselaphus tragocamelus

 Nocardia spp, 47, 103

 Noichi Zoological Park of Kochi Prefecture, Japan, 47, 183

 Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), 47, 102

 North of England Zoological Society (Chester Zoo), UK, 47, 1, 2, 32, 33, 37, 58, 99

 North Sea, Project, 47, 36

 Nosema cuniculi, see Encephalitozoon cuniculi

 Nothobranchiidae, 47, 53

 Notopteridae, 47, 53

 Nukta, see Schismatorhynchos nukta

 Nutrition,

   milk replacers, marsupials, composition, fatty acid, amino acid, mineral, 47, 190–199

 Nymphoides peltata, 47, 135

O

 Oak, see Quercus

 Ocean, Atlantic, 47, 67

 Oceanario Lisboa, Portugal, 47, 99

 Ocelot, see Leopardus pardalis

 Odocoileus virginianus, 47, 215

 Odonata, 47, 48

 Odontobutidae, 47, 56

 Olyridae, 47, 52

 Oncorhynchus spp, 47, 21, 36

 Oncorhynchus mykiss, food, 47, 185

 Ophichthidae, 47, 55

 Ophidiidae, 47, 52

 Orconectes rusticus, invasive, 47, 22

 Oregon Coast Aquarium, Newport, OR, USA, 47, 116

 Oreochromis mossambicus, invasive, 47, 75

 Oreochromis niloticus, 47, 75, 102

 Oryx, Arabian, see Oryx leucoryx; Beisa, see Oryx beisa

 Oryx beisa, 47, 213

 Oryx leucoryx, 47, 213

 Oryzias latipes, 47, 24, 27

 Osmeridae, 47, 53

   smelt, festival, 47, 13

 Osmeriformes, 47, 57

 Osphronemidae, 47, 55, 77

 Ostariophysi, 47, 65

 Ostariophysii, 47, 66

 Ostariophysan, fish, 47, 66

 Osteochilichthys longidorsalis, 47, 74

 Osteoglossidae, 47, 54, 66

 Osteoglossiformes, 47, 57

 Ovis orientalis laristanica, 47, 213

 Ovis orientalis musimon, 47, 213

P

 paddlefish, 47, 19, 50, 51

 Paddlefish, Yangtze, see Psephurus gladius

 Paedocypris spp, 47, 16

 Pairi Daiza, Belgium, 47, 182, 183, 184, 186, 187

 Palm, Chinese fan, see Livistona chinensis; Sable, see Sabal sp

 Panda, Giant, see Ailuropoda melanoleuca

 Pangasianodon gigas, 47, 12, 33, 36, 95

   migratory, 47, 95

 Pangasiidae, 47, 55

 Pangasius sanitwongsei, 47, 36

 Panthera leo, 47, 216

   Brucella abortus, Brucella canis, captive, 47, 204–207

 Panthera onca,

   Brucella abortus, Brucella canis, captive, 47, 204–207

 Pantodontidae, 47, 52

 Papio sp, 47, 202

 Paracobitis smithi, 47, 18

 Paralichthyidae, 47, 52

 Paratya curvirostris, 47, 120

 Parodontidae, 47, 56

 Pearlspot, see Etroplus suratensis; Canara, see Etroplus canarensis

 Pelecanidae, 47, 182

 Pelecaniforme, 47, 182

 Pennisetum purpureum, 47, 184

 Perca fluviatilis, 47, 135

 Perch, see Perca fluviatilis; Nile, see Lates niloticus

 Percichthyidae, 47, 54

 Percidae, 47, 55, 141, 147

 Perciformes, 47, 57

 Perciliidae, 47, 57

 Percina jenkinsi, 47, 147

 Percopsidae, 47, 57

 Periophthalmus spp, 47, 16

 Perspectives, essay,

   fishes, fresh water, conservation,

     global challenges, 47, 6–45(Pl)

 Petromyzontidae, 47, 54

 Petromyzontiformes, 47, 57

 Phallostethid sp, 47, 15

 Phallostethidae, 47, 55

 Philodendron sp, 47, 154

 Phoca vitulina, 47, 216

 Phractolaemidae, 47, 52

 Phreatobius spp, 47, 16, 66

 Phreatobius cisternarum, 47, 16

 Phycidae, 47, 57

 Piaba, Project, 47, 34, 68, 77

 Pike, see Esox spp, Esox lucius

 Pimelodidae, 47, 56

 Pine, see Pinus

 Pinguipedidae, 47, 57

 Pinus, 47, 227

 Pipefish, 47, 17, 66

   Specialist Group, 47, 32

 Pirapatinga, see Colossoma brachypomum

 Pirarucu, 47, 66

 Pirarucu, see Arapaima gigas

 Plateau, Deccan, 47, 71

 Platycephalidae, 47, 52

 Pleco, Leopard, see Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps; Zebra, see Hypancistrus zebra

 Plecoglossidae, 47, 57

 Pleuronectidae, 47, 55

 Pleuronectiformes, 47, 57

 Plotosidae, 47, 56

 Poecilia reticulata, 47, 75, 97

 poeciliid, 47, 66

 Poeciliidae, 47, 55

 Polycentridae, 47, 55, 66

 Polyodontidae, 47, 51, 52

 Polynemidae, 47, 56

 Polypteridae, 47, 53

 Pomacentridae, 47, 57

 Ponds, Doune, 47, 135

 Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, 47, 153

 Populus, 47, 227

 poraquê, see Electrophorus

 Positive-reinforcement training (PRT), husbandry,

   Leptoptilos crumeniferus, Edinburgh Zoo, 47, 171–180(Pl)

 Possum, Brushtail, see Trichosurus vulpecula; Ringtail, see Pseudocheirus peregrinus

 Potamotrygonidae, 47, 53

 Potoroo, Long-nosed, see Potorous tridactylus

 Potorous tridactylus, 47, 191, 196

 Powan, see Coregonus lavaretus

 Prague Zoo, Czech Republic, 47, 183

 Pristidae, 47, 51, 52

 Pristigasteridae, 47, 55

 Pristis sp, 47, 12

 Prochilodontidae, 47, 56

 Profundulidae, 47, 55

 Project,

   4 Major Rivers, 47, 26

   Inter Basin Water Transfer, India, 47, 73

   North Sea, 47, 36

   Piaba, 47, 34, 68, 77

   Seahorse, 47, 76, 77

 Protopteridae, 47, 53

 Protopterus spp, 47, 16

 Psephurus gladius, 47, 26

 Pseudaphritidae, 47, 57

 Pseudocheirus peregrinus, 47, 191, 197

 Pseudomugilidae, 47, 53

 Pseudopimelodidae, 47, 56

 Pseudosphromenus dayi, 47, 74

 Psilorhynchidae, 47, 52

 Ptereleotridae, 47, 52

 Pterophyllum spp, 47, 103

 Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps, invasive, 47, 76

 Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus, invasive, 47, 76

 Pterygoplichthys pardalis, invasive, 47, 76

 puffer, 47, 66

 Pufferfish, Malabar, see Carinotetraodon travancoricus

 Puma, see Puma concolor

 Puma concolor,

   Brucella abortus, Brucella canis, captive, 47, 204–207

 Pungu maclareni, 47, 18

 Puntius assimilis, 47, 74

 Puntius chalakkudiensis, 47, 74

 Puntius denisonii, 47, 73, 74

 Puntius fasciatus, 47, 73

 Puntius filamentosus, 47, 73

 Puntius setnai, 47, 74

 Puntius tambraparniei, 47, 74

 Pupfish, see Cyprinodon spp; Megupsilon sp; Charco Palma, see Cyprinodon veronicae; Checkered, see Cualac tessellatus; Desert, see Cyprinodon macularius; Devils Hole, see Cyprinodon diabolis; La Palma, see Cyprinodon longidorsalis; Potosi, see Cyprinodon alvarezi

Q

 Quercus, 47, 227

 Quoll, Eastern, see Dasyurus viverrinus

R

 Ramsar Convention, 47, 7, 26, 30, 31, 58, 133

 Ray, 47, 17

   Specialist Group, 47, 32

 Reintroduction,

   Ceratophrys stolzmanni, future, 47, 160

   fishes, fresh water, 47, 4, 7, 30, 33–35, 58, 59

     Acipenser fulvescens, 47, 35, 95, 140–150(Pl)

     Alosa alosa, 47, 99

     Anabarilius graham, 47, 35

     biosecurity, 47, 3

     considerations, 47, 109–110

     Cyprinus pellegrini, 47, 35

     Fundulus julisia, 47, 140–150(Pl)

     Haplochromis piceatus, considerations, 47, 115

     Sinocyclocheilus graham, 47, 35

     Umbra krameri, 47, 99

 Reservoir,

   Carron Valley, 47, 133, 134, 137

   Daer, 47, 135, 136, 137, 138

   Megget, 47, 131, 132, 137, 138

   Sloy, 47, 133

   Talla, 47, 131, 132, 137

 Retropinnidae, 47, 55

 Rhamphichthyidae, 47, 56

 Rhea, Greater, see Rhea americana

 Rhea americana,

   enrichment, environmental, Belo Horizonte Zoo, 47, 163–170

 Rhinobatidae, 47, 55

 Rhyacichthyidae, 47, 57

 Rhynchotus rufescens, 47, 167

 River,

   Amazon, 47, 15, 16, 17, 26, 67, 68, 83, 159

   Atabapo, 47, 67

   Bharatapuzha, 47, 75

   Brahmaputra, 47, 17, 83

   Cauvery, 47, 71

   Colorado, 47, 21

   Conasauga, 47, 147

   Congo, 47, 17, 67

   Cross, 47, 13

   Cumberland, 47, 95, 144, 148

   Darling, 47, 26, 34

   Dee, 47, 130

   Euphrates, 47, 26

   French Broad, 47, 95

   Ganges, 47, 26, 28, 83

   Godavari, 47, 71

   Indrayani, 47, 75

   Indus, 47, 26, 28, 83

   Irrawaddy, 47, 83

   Japurá, 47, 67

   Krishna, 47, 71, 73

   Kuja, 47, 113

   La Plata, 47, 18, 26, 69

   Leven, 47, 132

   Madeira, 47, 67, 68

   Marañon, 47, 67

   Megget Water, 47, 131

   Mekong, 47, 9, 15, 17, 20, 26, 28, 46, 83

   Meta, 47, 67

   Mobile River, 47, 148

   Murray, 47, 26, 34

   Napo, 47, 67

   Negro, 47, 34, 67, 68

   Neva, 47, 13

   Niger, 47, 12, 29

   Nile, 47, 12; lower, 47, 182

   Ogeechee, 47, 27

   Orinoco, 47, 67

   Paraguay, 47, 67

   Paraíba do Sul, 47, 34, 69

   Paranà, 47, 26, 67

   Rhine, 47, 35

   Rio Grande, 47, 34

   Salween, 47, 28, 83

   Sichuan, 47, 28

   Talla Water, 47, 131

   Tapajós, 47, 67

   Tapi, 47, 71

   Tefé, 47, 67

   Tennessee, 47, 142, 143, 144, 148

   Teuchitlán, 47, 59

   Tigris, 47, 12, 26

   Tocantins, 47, 67

   Tumnin, 47, 18

   Ventuari, 47, 67

   Xingu, 47, 67, 68

   Waituna, 47, 123

   White Nile, 47, 112

   Wisconsin, 47, 143

   Wolf, 47, 143

   Yangtze, 47, 13, 17, 20, 26, 28, 51, 83

   Yellow, 47, 28

 rivulid, 47, 66

 Rivulidae, 47, 56

 Roach, see Rutilus rutilus

 Rohu, see Labeo rohita

 Royal Veterinary College, epilepsy referral clinic, London, UK, 47, 201, 202

 Royal Zoological Society of Scotland Edinburgh Zoo, 47, 171, 172; see also Edinburgh Zoo

 Ruffe, see Gymnocephalus cernuus

 Rutilus rutilus, 47, 134

 Rutilus rutilus aralensis, 47, 18

S

 Sabal sp, 47, 184

 Saccharum spp, crop, 47, 73

 Saimiri, 47, 200

 Saimiri boliviensis,

   epilepsy, management, captive breeding, ZSL London Zoo, 47, 200–203

 Salangidae, 47, 55

 Salmincola edwardsii, gill maggot, 47, 131, 137

 Salmo spp, 47, 25

 Salmo salar, 47, 27, 28, 36

 Salmo trutta, 47, 21, 135; invasive, 47, 22

 Salmo trutta aralensis, 47, 18

 salmon, 47, 10, 13, 15, 17

   invasive, 47, 68

 Salmon, see Hucho taimen; Oncorhynchus spp; Salmo spp; Atlantic, see Salmo salar

 Salmonid, 47, 18

   Specialist Group, 47, 18, 32

 Salmonidae, 47, 53, 75

 salmoniform, 47, 3

 Salvelinus alpinus, 47, 3

   fishes, fresh water, ex situ, in situ, assisted reproduction, Scotland, 47, 129–139(Pl)

 San Antonio Zoo, TX, USA, 47, 117

 San Diego Zoo Safari Park, CA, USA, 47, 183, 188

 Sandperch, 47, 32

 Sarcophilus harrisii, 47, 190, 191, 194, 196, 197

 Sarcopterygii, 47, 50

 sardine, 47, 66

 Sardine, see Sardina pilchardus

 Sardina pilchardus, food, 47, 185

 Sarotherodon spp, 47, 21

 sawfish, 47, 17, 51, 59; see also Pristis sp

 Scatophagidae, 47, 54

 Scaturiginichthys vermeilipinnis, 47, 36, 37(Pl), 84

 Schilbeidae, 47, 53

 Schismatorhynchos nukta, 47, 74

 schistosomes, parasitic, flatworm, 47, 23

 Sciaenid, 47, 32

 Sciaenidae, 47, 55

 Scoloplacidae, 47, 57

 Scomber scombrus, food, 47, 185

 Scombridae, 47, 52

 Scophthalmidae, 47, 57

 Scorpaenidae, 47, 57

 Scorpaeniformes, 47, 57

 Scotland,

   fishes, fresh water, conservation,

     Coregonus albula, 47, 129–139(Pl)

     Coregonus lavaretus, 47, 129–139(Pl)

     Salvelinus alpinus, 47, 129–139(Pl)

 Sea,

   Arabian, 47, 71

   Aral, 47, 17, 18, 21, 28, 36

   Baltic, 47, 134

   Caspian, 47, 9, 17, 20

 Seabream, 47, 32

 Seafood Watch, 47, 77

 Seahorse,

   Project, 47, 76, 77

   Specialist Group, 47, 32

 Seal, Harbour, see Phoca vitulina

 Serranidae, 47, 52

 Serrasalmidae, 47, 57

 Shad, see Alosa spp; Allis, see Alosa alosa

 Shark, 47, 17

   Specialist Group, 47, 32

 Shoebill, see Balaeniceps rex

 shrimp, 47, 48

 Shrimp, Brine, see Artemia salina; Freshwater, see Paratya curvirostris

 Sillaginidae, 47, 57

 Siluridae, 47, 55

 Siluriformes, 47, 57, 66

 silverside, 47, 66

 Sinocyclocheilus graham, 47, 35

 Sisoridae, 47, 54

 Skiffia, Golden, see Skiffia francesae

 Skiffia francesae, 47, 99, 104

 smelt, festival, 47, 13

 Snakehead, see Channa spp; Indian giant, see Channa diplogramma

 Snapper, 47, 32

 Soleidae, 47, 56

 South America,

   fishes, fresh water, conservation, 47, 65–70

 Sparidae, 47, 55

 Specialist Group,

   Billfish, 47, 32

   Fish, Coral Reef, 47, 32

   Freshwater Fish, (FFSG), 47, 1, 2, 7, 32, 37, 48, 49, 58

   Grouper, 47, 32

   Invasive Species, 47, 21

   Pipefish, 47, 32

   Ray, 47, 32

   Salmonid, 47, 18, 32

   Seahorse, 47, 32

   Shark, 47, 32

   Stickleback, 47, 32

   Sturgeon, 47, 32

   Tuna, 47, 32

   Wrasse, 47, 32

   Eel, Anguillid, 47, 2, 32

 Species Survival Plan (SSP), 47, 23

   Lake Victoria cichlid (LVSSP), East Africa, 47, 3, 33, 34, 58, 112–119

 Splitfin, Butterfly, see Ameca splendens; Chapultepec, see Girardinichthys viviparous; Polkadot, see Chapalichthys pardalis; Tequila, see Zoogoneticus tequila

 stenohaline, fish, fresh water, 47, 17

 Sternopygidae, 47, 56

 Stickleback, 47, 17

   armoured, 47, 51

   Specialist Group, 47, 32

 stingray, 47, 66

 Stingray, Mekong freshwater, see Dasyatis laosensis

 Stomiidae, 47, 57

 Stomiiformes, 47, 57

 Stork, see Ciconiiforme; Marabou, see Leptoptilos crumeniferus

 Studbooks, international, rare animal, 47, 406–431

 Sturgeon, 47, 9, 17, 19, 20, 21, 50, 51, 142

   Specialist Group, 47, 32

 Sturgeon, see Acipenser spp; Lake, see Acipenser fulvescens; Sakhalin, see Acipenser mikadoi; Yangtze, see Acipenser dabryanus

 Stuttgart Zoo, Germany, 47, 187

 Sugarcane, see Saccharum spp

 Sundasalangidae, 47, 57

 Survey,

   questionnaire, Balaeniceps rex, guidelines, management, husbandry, 47, 181–189(Pl)

 Sus scrofa, 47, 206

 Swamp, The Sudd, 47, 182

 Swine, feral, see Sus scrofa

 Synbranchidae, 47, 53

 Syncerus caffer, 47, 206

 Syngnathidae, 47, 55

T

 Taimen, see Hucho spp, Hucho taimen

 Tambaqui, see Colossoma

 Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo, FL, USA, 47, 183, 184, 186, 187

 Taxon Advisory Group (TAG), 47, 32

   Fish and Aquatic Invertebrate (FAITAG), European, 47, 3, 93, 94

   Freshwater Fish, 47, 3

   Lower Vertebrate and Invertebrate, 47, 86

 Telmatherinidae, 47, 53

 Tenebrio molitor, food, 47, 154, 156

 Tennessee Aquarium, Chattanooga, TN, USA, 47, 95, 140–150

 Tennessee Aquarium Conservation Institute (TNACI), Chattanooga, TN, USA, 47, 4

   fishes, fresh water, conservation,

     Acipenser fulvescens, 47, 140–150(Pl)

     Fundulus julisia, 47, 140–150(Pl)

 Tennessee Technological University, USA, 47, 143, 145

 Terapontidae, 47, 54

 Tetra, Black widow, see Gymnocorymbus ternetzi

 Tetraodontidae, 47, 54

 Tetrarogidae, 47, 54

 Thuja occidentalis, 47, 227

 Tigriopus sp, copepod, food, 47, 124

 tilapia, 47, 12, 13, 23

   invasive, 47, 68

 Tilapia, see Cichlidae; Sarotherodon spp; Mozambique, see Oreochromis mossambicus; Nile, see Oreochromis niloticus; Otjikoto, see Tilapia guinasana

 Tilapia guinasana, 47, 104

 Tinamou, Red-winged, see Rhynchotus rufescens

 Toledo Zoo, OH, USA, 47, 116–118

 Toothcarp, Corfu, see Valencia letourneuxi

 toothcarp, Valencia, 47, 51

 Topminnow, Barrens, see Fundulus julisia

 Tor spp, 47, 72, 78

 Tor malabaricus, 47, 74

 Toxotidae, 47, 54

 Tragelaphus imberbis, 47, 209, 212

 Tragelaphus strepsiceros, 47, 216

 Translocations, fishes, fresh water, 47, 129–139

 Travancoria elongata, 47, 74

 Trichomycteridae, 47, 56

 Trichosurus vulpecula, 47, 191, 197

 Triglidae, 47, 52

 Triportheidae, 47, 57

 Tripsacum dactyloides, 47, 184

 Tripterygiidae, 47, 57

 trout, 47, 13, 17, 21, 68, 75, 79

   invasive, 47, 68

 Trout, see Oncorhynchus spp; Brown, see Salmo trutta; Peninsular hill, see Lepidopygopsis typus; Rainbow, see Oncorhynchus mykiss

 Tubifex, food, 47, 105

 Tucunaré, see Cichla

 Tuna, Specialist Group, 47, 32

U

 Ueno Zoological Gardens, Japan, 47, 183, 186

 Uganda Wildlife Educational Centre, Uganda, 47, 183

 Umbra krameri, 47, 99

 Umbridae, 47, 55

 University, Can Tho, Vietnam, 47, 15

 University, Tennessee Technological, USA, 47, 143

 University of Morelia, Mexico, 47, 99

 University of Tennessee, USA, 47, 143

V

 Vaillantellidae, 47, 57

 Valencia letourneuxi, 47, 97, 99, 104

 Valenciidae, 47, 51, 52

 Vallisneria sp, aquatic plant, 47, 97

 Vandellia spp, parasitic, 47, 66

 Vendace, see Coregonus albula

 Vesicularia sp, aquatic plant, 47, 97

 Vienna Zoo, Austria, 47, 99

W

 Welfare,

   conditions, assessment, 47, 222

   Rhea americana, enrichment, environmental, Belo Horizonte Zoo, Brazil, 47, 163–170

 Weltvogelpark Walsrode, Germany, 47, 183

 Western Ghats, India,

   fishes, fresh water, conservation, 47, 71–80

 Whiting, see Merlangius merlangus

 Wild Salmon Center, Portland, OR, USA, 47, 36

 WorldFish, Makati, Philippines, 47, 23, 37

 Worm, White, see Enchytraeus buchholzi

 Wrasse, Specialist Group, 47, 32

Y

 Yasuhikotakia sidthimunki, 47, 18

Z

 Zebrafish, see Brachydanio rerio

 Zingel, see Zingel zingel

 Zingel zingel, 47, 99

 Zoo Frankfurt, Germany, 47, 183, 184, 185

 Zoo Outreach Organization, India, 47, 2, 32, 34

 Zoo Zurich, Switzerland, 47, 183

 Zoogoneticus tequila, 47, 104

 Zoological Society of London (ZSL), UK, 47, 1, 2, 19, 37, 48, 94

   ZSL London Zoo, UK, 47, 1, 32, 58, 103–104, 94, 99

     fishes, fresh water, management, 47, 96–98

     Saimiri boliviensis, epilepsy, management, captive breeding, 47, 200–203

 Zoologischer Garten Wuppertal, Germany, 47, 183

 Zoos and aquariums of the world, address list, 47, 231–388

 Zoos and aquariums of the world, index, 47, 389–405

 ZSL London Zoo, see Zoological Society of London (ZSL), UK,

Ancillary