Background. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between the period of diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal and neonatal outcome.
Methods. In this retrospective study, 1708 offspring (1571 singleton, 119 twins, and 18 triplets) born to women with GDM who attended the Diabetic and Pregnancy Clinic were included. Pregnancies were divided into three groups according to the gestational age at GDM diagnosis. The association of the period of diagnosis with maternal and fetal outcome was assessed adjusting for potentially confounding variables (logistic regression analysis).
Results. The period of diagnosis was a predictor in two out of three maternal outcomes (pregnancy-induced hypertension and insulin treatment) and in four out of 12 fetal outcomes (preterm birth, 5-min Apgar <7, perinatal mortality, and hyperbilirubinemia). Whereas pregnancy-induced hypertension was higher in women diagnosed with GDM in the second period, the other outcomes displayed higher occurrences with earlier diagnosis.
Conclusions. Diagnosis of GDM earlier in pregnancy is a predictor of adverse maternal and neonatal outcome.