1. Professor of Sociology and Law at Northwestern University and Senior Research Fellow at the American Bar Foundation. His most recent books are Justice in the Balkans: Prosecuting War Crimes at The Hague Tribunal (University of Chicago Press, 2003) and Northern Passage: American Vietnam War Resisters in Canada (Harvard University Press, 2001), which received the 2004 Albert J. Reiss Award from the Crime, Law and Deviance Section of the American Sociological Association.
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    1. A PhD candidate in Northwestern University's Department of Sociology and a research assistant at the American Bar Foundation. Her areas of interest include urban sociology, criminology, race/ethnicity, inequality, qualitative methods and law. For her dissertation, she is conducting longitudinal research in a public housing development undergoing transformation to better understand how geographic space matters for individuals in violent neighborhoods. Forthcoming publications include “Circumventing Discrimination: Cognitive Maps as a Mechanism of Social Control” in The Many Colors of Crime (editors John Hagan, Ruth Peterson and Laurie Krivo).
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    1. A senior research associate at the University of Toronto. As well as continuing her work on violence in Darfur, she is involved in panel research on the social and political engagement of adolescents and emerging adults and on the early and later lives of lawyers. Her articles have appeared in American Sociological Review, Law & Society Review and the Canadian Journal of Sociology.
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Nearly 400,000 Africans may have been killed in racially motivated, lethally destructive, state supported, and militarily unjustified attacks on the farms and villages of the Darfur region of Sudan. Using victimization survey data collected from Darfurian survivors living in refugee camps in Chad, and drawing on conflict theory, we present evidence that the Sudanese government has directly supported violent killings and rapes in a lethally destructive exercise of power and control. In the language of the Geneva Genocide Convention, these attacks have inflicted on African tribal groups “conditions of life calculated to bring about their physical destruction in whole or in part.” The data include explicit evidence of the central mediating role played by racism in the attacks. There is little or no evidence from the surveys to support the claim of the Sudanese government that the attacks have been aimed at rebel groups as a counter-insurgency strategy. The Sudanese government claims are by this analysis not credible as self-defense arguments, but rather of the exercise of power and control through denial. Further forms of such denial are considered, including the slowness of modern American criminology to advance the study of genocide.