Late-season induction of diapause in Nezara viridula and its effect on adult coloration and post-diapause reproductive performance


  • Dmitry L. Musolin,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Bio- and Geosciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Japan;
    2. Laboratory of Entomology, Biological Research Institute of Saint Petersburg State University, Stary Peterhof, Saint Petersburg, Russia
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Hideharu Numata

    1. Department of Bio- and Geosciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Japan;
    Search for more papers by this author

*Correspondence: Dmitry L. Musolin, Entomology Laboratory, National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, Hitsujigaoka 1, Sapporo 062-8555, Japan. E-mail:


Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) recently expanded its distribution range in Japan and reached Osaka. In the southern temperate zone, the species overwinters in the adult stage and reproductive diapause is associated with a body colour change from green to russet. In Osaka, the reproductive diapause is only induced in September–October and nymphs from late egg masses are destined to die during winter. However, the fate of adults emerging late in the season remained unknown. Survival, body colour change, and post-diapause reproduction were studied under quasi-natural conditions in Osaka in 1999–2000 in those adults that attained adulthood as late as in November. Two experimental cohorts were used: in the Outdoor cohort, insects were reared outdoors starting in their second instar (28 September); in the Laboratory cohort, nymphs and subsequently adults were reared from the same day under diapause-inducing conditions (L10:D14 at 25 °C), then acclimatized (5 days at 20 °C and 5 days at 15 °C; L10:D14) and transferred outdoors on 1 December. Adults in both cohorts did not reproduce in autumn and survived the winter with a low mortality. More than 20% of adults in the Outdoor cohort failed to change body colour from green to russet during winter, apparently because of the low ambient temperature, suggesting that the environmental conditions required for colour change do not completely coincide with those required for diapause induction, and that the colour of the adults is not always a reliable indicator of diapause in this species. After overwintering, females from the Outdoor cohort produced significantly fewer egg masses and eggs and had a significantly shorter period of oviposition than females that entered diapause under short-day conditions in the Laboratory cohort. Thus, if progeny from the late egg masses attain adulthood late in the autumn, these adults have high chances of successful overwintering, but their reproductive output after the winter diapause is significantly reduced.