• Functional magnetic resonance imaging;
  • Intracarotid amobarbital testing;
  • Cognitive localization;
  • Seizure localization

Summary:  Functional MRI (fMRI) methods use currently standard MRI scanning hardware to detect changes in regional blood flow and metabolism that accompany regional brain activation. Major applications of fMRI in epilepsy include the localization of task-correlated language and memory function, and the localization of ictal and paroxysmal phenomena. Language lateralization by fMRI provides comparable results to intracarotid amobarbital testing, and memory lateralization by fMRI also shows promise. The recent development of methodologies to allow interpretable electroencephalographic data to be recorded during MRI scanning has opened up new opportunities for combining the spatial resolution of imaging with the temporal resolution of electrophysiology in seizure localization.