High-frequency Oscillations after Status Epilepticus: Epileptogenesis and Seizure Genesis


Address corresponding and reprint requests to Dr. A. Bragin at Department of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, 710 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, U.S.A. E-mail: abragin@ucla.edu


Summary: Purpose: To investigate the temporal relation between high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the dentate gyrus and recurrent spontaneous seizures after intrahippocampal kainite-induced status epilepticus.

Methods: Recording microelectrodes were implanted bilaterally in different regions of hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. A guide cannula for microinjection of kainic acid (KA) was implanted above the right posterior CA3 area of hippocampus. After recording baseline electrical activity, KA (0.4 μg/0.2 μl) was injected. Beginning on the next day, electrographic activity was recorded with video monitoring for seizures every day for 8 h/day for ≥30 days.

Results: Of the 26 rats studied, 19 revealed the appearance of sharp-wave activity and HFOs in the frequency range of 80 to 500 Hz in the dentate gyrus ipsilateral to the KA injection. In the remaining seven rats, no appreciable activity was noted in this frequency range. In some rats with recurrent seizures, HFOs were in the ripple frequency range (100–200 Hz); in others, HFOs were in the fast ripple frequency range (200–500 Hz), or a mixture of both oscillation frequencies was found. The time of detection of the first HFOs after status epilepticus varied between 1 and 30 days, with a mean of 6.3 ± 2.0 (SEM). Of the 19 rats in which HFO activity appeared, all later developed recurrent spontaneous seizures, whereas none of the rats without HFOs developed seizures. The sooner HFO activity was detected after status epilepticus, the sooner the first spontaneous seizure occurred. A significant inverse relation was found between the time to the first HFO detection and the subsequent rate of spontaneous seizures.

Conclusions: A strong correlation was found between a decreased time to detection of HFOs and an increased rate of spontaneous seizures, as well as with a decrease in the duration of the latent period between KA injection and the detection of spontaneous seizures. Two types of HFOs were found after KA injection, one in the frequency range of 100 to 200 Hz, and the other, in the frequency range of 200 to 500 Hz, and both should be considered pathological, suggesting that both are epileptogenic.