• 1
    Volpe JJ. Neurology of the newborn. 4th ed. Philadelphia : WB Saunders, 2000.
  • 2
    Bergamasco B, Benna P, Ferrero P, et al. Neonatal hypoxia and epileptic risk: a clinical prospective study. Epilepsia 1984;25: 1316.
  • 3
    Legido A, Clancy RR, Berman PH. Neurologic outcome after electroencephalographically proven neonatal seizures. Pediatrics 1991;88: 58396.
  • 4
    Clancy RR, Legido A. Postnatal epilepsy after EEG-confirmed neonatal seizures. Epilepsia 1991;32: 6976.
  • 5
    Nelson KB, Ellenberg JH. Predictors of epilepsy in children who have experienced febrile seizures. N Engl J Med 1976;295: 102933.
  • 6
    Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Shirts SB, et al. Factors prognostic of unprovoked seizures after febrile convulsions. N Engl J Med 1987;316: 4938.
  • 7
    Berg AT, Shinnar S. Do seizures beget seizures? An assessment of the clinical evidence in humans. J Clin Neurophysiol 1997;14: 10210.
  • 8
    Falconer M, Serafetinides E, Corsellis J. Etiology and pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy. Arch Neurol 1964;10: 23348.
  • 9
    Harvey AS, Grattan-Smith JD, Desmond PM, et al. Febrile seizures and hippocampal sclerosis: frequent and related findings in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy of childhood. Pediatr Neurol 1995;12: 2016.
  • 10
    Cendes F, Andermann F, Dubeau F, et al. Early childhood prolonged febrile convulsions, atrophy and sclerosis of mesial structures, and temporal lobe epilepsy: an MRI volumetric study. Neurology 1993;43: 10837.
  • 11
    Wasterlain CG. Effects of neonatal status epilepticus on rat brain development. Neurology 1976;26: 97586.
  • 12
    Moshe SL, Albala BJ. Maturational changes in postictal refractoriness and seizure susceptibility in developing rats. Ann Neurol 1983;13: 55257.
  • 13
    Jensen FE, Holmes GL, Lombroso CT, et al. Age-dependent changes in long-term seizure susceptibility and behavior after hypoxia in rats. Epilepsia 1992;33: 97180.
  • 14
    Holmes GL, Gairsa JL, Chevassus-au-Louis N, et al. Consequences of neonatal seizures in the rat: morphological and behavioral effects. Ann Neurol 1998;44: 84557.
  • 15
    Dube C, Chen K, Eghbal-Ahmadi M, et al. Prolonged febrile seizures in the immature rat model enhance hippocampal excitability long term. Ann Neurol 2000;47: 33644.
  • 16
    Jensen FE, Wang C, Stafstrom CE, et al. Acute and chronic increases in excitability in rat hippocampal slices after perinatal hypoxia In vivo. J Neurophysiol 1998;79: 7381.
  • 17
    Chen K, Baram TZ, Soltesz I. Febrile seizures in the developing brain result in persistent modification of neuronal excitability in limbic circuits. Nat Med 1999;5: 88894.
  • 18
    Villeneuve N, Ben-Ari Y, Holmes GL, et al. Neonatal seizures induced persistent changes in intrinsic properties of CA1 rat hippocampal cells. Ann Neurol 2000;47: 72938.
  • 19
    Albala BJ, Moshe SL, Okada R. Kainic-acid-induced seizures: a developmental study. Brain Res 1984;315: 13948.
  • 20
    Toth Z, Yan XX, Haftoglou S, et al. Seizure-induced neuronal injury: vulnerability to febrile seizures in an immature rat model. J Neurosci 1998;18: 428594.
  • 21
    Sankar R, Shin DH, Liu H, et al. Patterns of status epilepticus-induced neuronal injury during development and long-term consequences. J Neurosci 1998;18: 838293.
  • 22
    Koh S, Storey TW, Santos TC, et al. Early-life seizures in rats increase susceptibility to seizure-induced brain injury in adulthood. Neurology 1999;53: 91521.
  • 23
    Schmid R, Tandon P, Stafstrom CE, et al. Effects of neonatal seizures on subsequent seizure-induced brain injury. Neurology 1999;53: 175461.
  • 24
    Koh S, Jensen FE. Topiramate blocks perinatal hypoxia-induced seizures in rat pups. Ann Neurol 2001;50: 36672.
  • 25
    Jensen FE, Applegate CD, Holtzman D, et al. Epileptogenic effect of hypoxia in the immature rodent brain. Ann Neurol 1991;29: 62937.
  • 26
    Swann JW, Gomez-Di Cesare CM. Developmental plasticity and hippocampal epileptogenesis. Hippocampus 1994;4: 2669.
  • 27
    Pellegrini-Giampietro DE, Bennett MV, Zukin RS. Differential expression of three glutamate receptor genes in developing rat brain: an in situ hybridization study. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991;88: 415761.
  • 28
    Insel TR, Miller LP, Gelhard RE. The ontogeny of excitatory amino acid receptors in rat forebrain, I. N-methyl-d-aspartate and quisqualate receptors. Neuroscience 1990;35: 3143.
  • 29
    Muller D, Lynch G. Long-term potentiation differentially affects two components of synaptic responses in hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988;85: 934650.
  • 30
    Davies SN, Lester RA, Reymann KG, et al. Temporally distinct pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms maintain long-term potentiation. Nature 1989;338: 5003.
  • 31
    Madison DV, Malenka RC, Nicoll RA. Mechanisms underlying long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Annu Rev Neurosci 1991;14: 37997.
  • 32
    Sanchez RM, Koh S, Rio C, et al. Decreased glutamate receptor 2 expression and enhanced epileptogenesis in immature rat hippocampus after perinatal hypoxia-induced seizures. J Neurosci 2001;21: 815463.
  • 33
    Kumar SS, Bacci A, Kharazia V, et al. A developmental switch of AMPA receptor subunits in neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Neurosci 2002;22: 300515.
  • 34
    Jensen FE, Blume H, Alvarado S, et al. NBQX blocks acute and late epileptogenic effects of perinatal hypoxia. Epilepsia 1995;36: 96672.
  • 35
    Paxinos G, Watson C. The rat brain in stereotaxic coordinates. 2nd ed. Sydney : Academic Press, 1986.
  • 36
    Wijsman JH, Jonker RR, Keijzer R, et al. A new method to detect apoptosis in paraffin sections: in situ end-labeling of fragmented DNA. J Histochem Cytochem 1993;41: 712.
  • 37
    Andine P, Orwar O, Jacobson I, et al. Changes in extracellular amino acids and spontaneous neuronal activity during ischemia and extended reflow in the CA1 of the rat hippocampus. J Neurochem 1991;57: 2229.
  • 38
    Li H, Buchan AM. Treatment with an AMPA antagonist 12 hours following severe normothermic forebrain ischemia prevents CA1 neuronal injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1993;13: 9339.
  • 39
    Buchan A, Li H, Pulsinelli WA. The N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist, MK-801, fails to protect against neuronal damage caused by transient, severe forebrain ischemia in adult rats. J Neurosci 1991;11: 104956.
  • 40
    Nellgard B, Wieloch T. Cerebral protection by AMPA- and NMDA-receptor antagonists administered after severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Exp Brain Res 1992;92: 25966.
  • 41
    Ying HS, Weishaupt JH, Grabb M, et al. Sublethal oxygen-glucose deprivation alters hippocampal neuronal AMPA receptor expression and vulnerability to kainate-induced death. J Neurosci 1997;17: 953644.
  • 42
    Calderone A, Jover T, Noh KM, et al. Ischemic insults derepress the gene silencer REST in neurons destined to die. J Neurosci 2003;23: 211221.
  • 43
    Jiang M, Lee CL, Smith KL, et al. Spine loss and other persistent alterations of hippocampal pyramidal cell dendrites in a model of early-onset epilepsy. J Neurosci 1998;18: 835668.
  • 44
    Nitecka L, Tremblay E, Charton G, et al. Maturation of kainic acid seizure-brain damage syndrome in the rat, II: histopathological sequelae. Neuroscience 1984;13: 107394.
  • 45
    Tandon P, Yang Y, Das K, et al. Neuroprotective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in seizures during development. Neuroscience 1999;91: 293303.
  • 46
    Marks JD, Friedman JE, Haddad GG. Vulnerability of CA1 neurons to glutamate is developmentally regulated. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 1996;97: 194206.
  • 47
    Nabetani M, Okada Y, Takata T, et al. Neural activity and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in the CA1 area of hippocampal slices from immature and mature rats during ischemia or glucose deprivation. Brain Res 1997;769: 15862.
  • 48
    Vannucci RC, Brucklacher RM, Vannucci SJ. Intracellular calcium accumulation during the evolution of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in the immature rat. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 2001;126: 11720.
  • 49
    Stafstrom CE, Thompson JL, Holmes GL. Kainic acid seizures in the developing brain: status epilepticus and spontaneous recurrent seizures. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1992;65: 22736.
  • 50
    French JA, Williamson PD, Thadani VM, et al. Characteristics of medial temporal lobe epilepsy, I: results of history and physical examination. Ann Neurol 1993;34: 77480.
  • 51
    Wieser HG, Engel JJ, Williams PD, et al. Surgically remediable temporal lobe syndromes. 2nd ed. New York : Raven Press, 1993: 4963.
  • 52
    Sillanpaa M, Jalava M, Kaleva O, et al. Long-term prognosis of seizures with onset in childhood. N Engl J Med 1998;338: 171522.