• 1
    Marcuse PM, Burger RA, Salmon GW. Hamartoma of the hypothalamus. J Pediatr 1953;43: 3018.
  • 2
    Sher PK, Brown SB. Gelastic epilepsy: onset in neonatal period. Am J Dis Child 1976;130: 112631.
  • 3
    Berkovic SF, Andermann F, Melanson D, et al. Hypothalamic hamartomas and ictal laughter: evolution of a characteristic epileptic syndrome and diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Neurol 1988;23: 42939.
  • 4
    Diebler C, Ponsot G. Hamartomas of the tuber cinereum. Neuroradiology 1983;25: 93101.DOI: 10.1007/BF00333299
  • 5
    Hall JG, Pallister PD, Clarren SK, et al. Congenital hypothalamic hamartoblastoma, hypopituitarism, imperforate anus and postaxial polydactyly: a new syndrome? Part I: clinical, causal, and pathogenetic considerations. Am J Med Genet 1980;7: 4774.
  • 6
    Gascon GG, Lombroso CT. Epileptic (gelastic) laughter. Epilepsia 1971;12: 6376.
  • 7
    Arroyo S, Lesser RP, Gordon B, et al. Mirth, laughter and gelastic seizures. Brain 1993;116: 75780.
  • 8
    Ironside R. Disorders of laughter due to brain lesions. Brain 1956;79: 589609.
  • 9
    Loiseau P, Cohadon F, Cohadon S. Gelastic epilepsy: a review and report of five cases. Epilepsia 1971;12: 31323.
  • 10
    Cascino GD, Andermann F, Berkovic SF, et al. Gelastic seizures and hypothalamic hamartomas: evaluation of patients undergoing chronic intracranial EEG monitoring and outcome of surgical treatment. Neurology 1993;43: 74750.
  • 11
    Valdueza JM, Cristante L, Dammann O, et al. Hypothalamic hamartomas: with special reference to gelastic epilepsy and surgery. Neurosurgery 1994;34: 94958.
  • 12
    Biesecker LG, Graham JM. Pallister-Hall syndrome. J Med Genet 1996;33: 5859.
  • 13
    Kang S, Graham JM, Olney AH, et al. GLI3 frameshift mutations cause the Pallister-Hall syndrome. Nat Genet 1997;15: 2668.DOI: 10.1038/ng0397-266
  • 14
    Wechsler D. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. 3rd ed. San Antonio , TX : The Psychological Corporation, 1997.
  • 15
    Wechsler D. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. 3rd ed. San Antonio , TX : The Psychological Corporation, 1991.
  • 16
    Woodcock RW, Johnson MB. Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Revised: Tests of Cognitive Ability. Itaska , IL : Riverside Publishing, 1989.
  • 17
    Feuillan P, Peters KF, Cutler GB, et al. Evidence for decreased growth hormone in patients with hypothalamic hamartoma due to Pallister-Hall syndrome. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2001;14: 1419.
  • 18
    Frattali CM, Liow K, Craig GH, et al. Cognitive deficits in children with gelastic seizures and hypothalamic hamartoma. Neurology 2001;57: 436.
  • 19
    List CF, Dowman CE, Bagchi BK, et al. Posterior hypothalamic hamartomas and gangliomas causing precocious puberty. Neurology 1958;8: 16474.
  • 20
    Breningstall GN. Gelastic seizures, precocious puberty, and hypothalamic hamartoma. Neurology 1985;35: 118083.
  • 21
    Nguyen D, Singh S, Zaatreh M, et al. Hypothalamic hamartomas: seven cases and review of the literature. Epilepsy Behav 2003;4: 24658.DOI: 10.1016/S1525-5050(03)00086-6
  • 22
    Deonna T, Ziegler AL. Hypothalamic hamartoma, precocious puberty and gelastic seizures: a special model of “epilepsy” developmental disorder. Epileptic Disord 2000;2: 337.
  • 23
    Sturm JW, Andermann F, Berkovic SF. “Pressure to laugh”: an unusual epileptic symptom associated with small hypothalamic hamartomas. Neurology 2000;54: 9713.
  • 24
    Striano S, Striano P, Cirillo S, et al. Small hypothalamic hamartomas and gelastic seizures. Epileptic Disord 2002;4: 12933.
  • 25
    Debeneix C, Bourgeois M, Trivin C, et al. Hypothalamic hamartoma: comparison of clinical presentation and magnetic resonance images. Horm Res 2001;56: 128.DOI: 10.1159/000048084
  • 26
    Arita K, Ikawa F, Kurisu K, et al. The relationship between magnetic resonance imaging findings and clinical manifestations of hypothalamic hamartoma. J Neurosurg 1999;91: 21220.
  • 27
    Freeman JL, Coleman LT, Wellard RM, et al. MR imaging and spectroscopic study of epileptogenic hypothalamic hamartomas: analysis of 72 cases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2004;25: 45062.
  • 28
    Kuo JS, Casey SO, Thompson L, et al. Pallister-Hall syndrome: clinical and MR features. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1999;20: 183941.
  • 29
    Martin DD, Uwe Seeger U, Ranke MB, et al. MR Imaging and spectroscopy of a tuber cinereum hamartoma in a patient with growth hormone deficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2003;24: 117780.