Abstract The genotype of an individual for allozymes such as phosphoglucoisomerase (Pgi) is often not neutral with regard to fitness. Studies of several taxa have found consistent fitness differences among Pgi genotypes expressing different allozymes. We conducted a greenhouse experiment with Clarkia unguiculata to determine whether allelic variation at the Pgi-C1 locus may affect components of male and female function. We found significant differences in siring success between pollen donors homozygous for different Pgi alleles. When a mixture of pollen was applied to stigmas under conditions of gametophytic competition (more pollen deposited on stigmas than there are ovules available to fertilize), donors homozygous for the C allele of Pgi sired more seeds per fruit than B-allele donors. Differences between genotypes with respect to female fertility per fruit contrasted with the male advantage associated with the C allele. Recipients homozygous for the C allele produced fruits with more aborted seeds and fewer viable seeds than recipients homozygous for the B allele. These results suggest that allelic variation at a single locus may have opposing effects on male and female reproductive success in C. unguiculata, and that trade-offs between the two types of reproductive success could contribute to the maintenance of variation at the Pgi-C1 locus.