THE FILE-DRAWER PROBLEM REVISITED: A GENERAL WEIGHTED METHOD FOR CALCULATING FAIL-SAFE NUMBERS IN META-ANALYSIS
Article first published online: 9 MAY 2007
Volume 59, Issue 2, pages 464–468, February 2005
How to Cite
Rosenberg, M. S. (2005), THE FILE-DRAWER PROBLEM REVISITED: A GENERAL WEIGHTED METHOD FOR CALCULATING FAIL-SAFE NUMBERS IN META-ANALYSIS. Evolution, 59: 464–468. doi: 10.1111/j.0014-3820.2005.tb01004.x
- Issue published online: 9 MAY 2007
- Article first published online: 9 MAY 2007
- Received September 30, 2004. Accepted November 24, 2004.
- Fail-safe numbers;
- file drawer problem;
- publication bias;
- statistical methods.
Abstract Quantitative literature reviews such as meta-analysis are becoming common in evolutionary biology but may be strongly affected by publication biases. Using fail-safe numbers is a quick way to estimate whether publication bias is likely to be a problem for a specific study. However, previously suggested fail-safe calculations are unweighted and are not based on the framework in which most meta-analyses are performed. A general, weighted fail-safe calculation, grounded in the meta-analysis framework, applicable to both fixed- and random-effects models, is proposed. Recent meta-analyses published in Evolution are used for illustration.