SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adis, J. (1979) Problems of interpreting arthropod sampling with pitfall traps. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 202, 117184.
  • Andersen, A.N. (1991) Responses of ground foraging ant communities to three experimental fire regimes in a savanna forest of tropical Australia. Biotropica, 23, 575585.
  • Andersen, A.N. & Müller, W.J. (2000) Arthropod responses to experimental fire regimes in an Australian tropical savannah: ordinal level analyses. Austral Ecology, 25, 199209.
  • Andersen, A.N. & Yen, A.L. (1985) Immediate effects of fire on ants in the semi-arid mallee region of north-western Victoria. Australian Journal of Ecology, 10, 2530.
  • Andersen, A.N., Braithwaite, R.W., Cook, G.D., Corbett, L.K., Williams, R.J., Douglas, M.M., Gill, M.A., Setterfield, S.A. & Müller, W.J. (1998) Fire research for conservation management in tropical savannas: introducing the Kapalga fire experiment. Australian Journal of Ecology, 23, 95110.
  • Bestelmeyer, B.T. & Wiens, J.A. (1996) The effects of land use on the structure of ground-foraging ant communities in the Argentine Chaco. Ecological Applications, 6, 12251240.
  • Biggs, R., Biggs, H.C., Dunne, T.T., Govender, N. & Potgieter, A.L.F. (2003) Experimental burn plot trials in the Kruger National Park: history, experimental design and suggestions for data analysis. Koedoe, 46, 115.
  • Bond, W.J. (1997) Fire. Vegetation of Southern Africa (eds R.M.Cowling, R.M.Richardson & S.Pierce), pp. 421446. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Bradstock, R.A., Keith, D.A. & Auld, T.D. (1995) Fire and conservation: imperatives and constraints on managing for diversity. Conserving Biodiversity: Threats and Solutions (eds R.A.Bradstock, T.D.Auld, D.A.Keith, R.T.Kingsford, D.Lunney & D.P.Sivertsen), pp. 323333. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, Australia.
  • Brain, C.K. & Sillen, A. (1988) Evidence from the Swartkrans cave for the earliest use of fire. Nature, 336, 464466.
  • Brockett, B.H., Biggs, H.C. & Van Wilgen, B.W. (2001) A patch mosaic burning system for conservation areas in southern African savannas. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 10, 169183.
  • Brynard, A.M. (1964) The influence of veld burning on the vegetation and game of the Kruger National Park. Ecological Studies in Southern Africa (ed. D.H. S.Davis), pp. 371393. Junk, The Hague, the Netherlands.
  • Chambers, B.Q. & Samways, M.J. (1998) Grasshopper response to a 40 year experimental burning and mowing regime, with recommendations for invertebrate conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 7, 9851012.
  • Chazdon, R.L., Colwell, R.K., Denslow, J.S. & Guariguata, M.R. (1998) Statistical methods for estimating species richness of woody regeneration in primary and secondary rain forests of northeastern Costa Rica. Forest Biodiversity Research, Monitoring and Modeling: Conceptual Background and Old World Case Studies (eds F.Dallmeier & J.A.Comiskey), pp. 285309. Parthenon Publishing, Paris, France.
  • Clarke, K.R. & Gorley, R.N. (2001) PRIMER v5: User Manua/Tutorial. Primer-e, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK.
  • Clarke, K.R. & Warwick, R.M. (1994) Change in Marine Communities: An Approach to Statistical Analysis and Interpretation. Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK.
  • Clarke, K.R. & Warwick, R.M. (2001) Change in Marine Communities: An Approach to Statistical Analysis and Interpretation. PRIMER-E, Plymouth, UK.
  • Colwell, R.K. (1997) Estimate S: Statistical Estimation of Species Richness and Shared Species from Samples, Version 5. http://viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/estimates.
  • Crist, T.O. & Wiens, J.A. (1994) Scale effects of vegetation on forager movement and seed harvesting by ants. Oikos, 69, 3746.
  • Donnelly, D. & Giliomee, J.H. (1985) Community structure of epigaeic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in fynbos vegetation in the Jonkershoek Valley. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 48, 247257.
  • Drake, J.A. (1991) Community-assembly mechanisms and the structure of an experimental species ensemble. American Naturalist, 137, 126.
  • Dufrêne, M. & Legendre, P. (1997) Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. Ecological Monographs, 67, 345366.
  • Edwards, P.J. (1984) The use of fire as a management tool. Ecological Effects of Fire in South African Ecosystems (eds P. de V.Booysen & N.M.Tainton), pp. 349362. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
  • Farji-Brener, A.G., Corley, J.C. & Bettinelli, J. (2002) The effects of fire on ant communities in north-western Patagonia: the importance of habitat structure and regional context. Diversity and Distributions, 8, 235243.
  • Ferrar, P. (1982) Termites of a South African savanna. III. Comparative attack on toilet roll baits in subhabitats. Oecologia, 52, 139146.
  • Friend, G.R. & Williams, M.R. (1996) Impact of fire on invertebrate communities in mallee–heath shrublands of south-western Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology, 2, 244267.
  • Fukami, T. (2001) Sequence effects of disturbance on community structure. Oikos, 92, 215224.
  • Gandar, M.V. (1982) Description of a Fire and its Effects in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve, A Synthesis Report. South African National Scientific Programmes Report No. 63. CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa.
  • Gertenbach, W.P.D. (1983) Landscapes of the Kruger National Park. Koedoe, 26, 921.
  • Gowlett, J.A.J., Harris, J.W.K., Walton, D. & Wood, B.A. (1981) Early archaeological sites, hominid remains and traces of fire from Chesowanja, Kenya. Nature, 294, 125129.
  • Greenslade, P.J.M. (1973) Sampling ants with pitfall traps: digging-in effects. Insectes Sociaux, 20, 343353.
  • Greenslade, P.J.M. & Greenslade, P. (1977) Some effects of vegetation cover and disturbance on a tropical ant fauna. Insectes Sociaux, 24, 163182.
  • Hoffmann, B.D. (2003) Responses of ant communities to experimental fire regimes on rangelands in the Victoria River District of the Northern Territory. Austral Ecology, 28, 182195.
  • Hough, J.L. (1993) Why burn the bush? Social approaches to bush-fire management in West African National Parks. Biological Conservation, 65, 2328.
  • Kaspari, M., O'Donnell, S. & Kercher, J.R. (2000) Energy, density and constraints to species richness: ant assemblages along a productivity gradient. American Naturalist, 155, 280293.
  • Keith, D.A., Williams, J.E. & Woinarski, J.C.Z. (2002) Fire management and biodiversity conservation: key approaches and principles. Flammable Australia: The Fire Regimes and Biodiversity of a Continent (eds R.A.Bradstock, J.E.Williams & A. M.Gill), pp. 401428. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Kershaw, A.P. (1986) Climatic change and aboriginal burning during the last glacial/interglacial cycles. Nature, 322, 4749.
  • Lee, S.M. & Chao, A. (1994) Estimating population size via sample coverage for closed capture–recapture models. Biometrics, 50, 8897.
  • Lockwood, J.L., Powell, R.D., Nott, M.P. & Pimm, S.L. (1997) Assembling ecological communities in time and space. Oikos, 80, 549553.
  • Longino, J.T., Coddington, J. & Colwell, R.K. (2002) The ant fauna of a tropical rainforest: estimating species richness three different ways. Ecology, 83, 689702.
  • Low, B. & Rebelo, A.G. (1996) Vegetation of Southern Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland: A Companion to the Vegetation Map of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria, South Africa.
  • McGeoch, M.A. & Chown, S.L. (1998) Scaling up the value of bioindicators. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 13, 4647.
  • McGeoch, M.A., Van Rensburg, B.J. & Botes, A. (2002) The verification and application of bioindicators: a case study of dung beetles in a savanna ecosystem. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39, 661672.
  • Mentis, M.T. & Bailey, A.W. (1990) Changing perceptions of fire management in savanna parks. Journal of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa, 7, 8184.
  • Moretti, M., Conedera, M., Duelli, D. & Edwards, P.J. (2002) The effects of wildfire on ground-active spiders in deciduous forests on the Swiss southern slope of the Alps. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39, 321336.
  • O'Brien, E.M., Field, R. & Whittaker, R.J. (2000) Climatic gradients in woody plant (tree and shrub) diversity: water-energy dynamics, residual variation and topography. Oikos, 89, 588600.
  • Orgeas, J. & Andersen, A.N. (2001) Fire and biodiversity: responses of grass-layer beetles to experimental fire regimes in an Australian tropical savanna. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 4962.
  • Parr, C.L. & Brockett, B.H. (1999) Patch-mosaic burning: a new paradigm for savanna fire management in protected areas? Koedoe, 42, 117130.
  • Parr, C.L. & Chown, S.L. (2001) Inventory and bioindicator sampling: testing pitfall and winkler sampling in a South African savanna. Journal of Insect Conservation, 5, 2736.
  • Parr, C.L. & Chown, S.L. (2003) Burning issues in conservation: a critique of faunal fire studies in Southern Africa. Austral Ecology, 28, 384395.
  • Parr, C.L., Bond, W.J. & Robertson, H.G. (2002) A preliminary study of the effect of fire on ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a South African savanna. African Entomology, 10, 101111.
  • Pennisi, E. (1999) Did cooked tubers spur the evolution of big brains? Science, 283, 20042005.
  • Pimm, S.L. (1984) The complexity and stability of ecosystems. Nature, 307, 321326.
  • Rice, W.R. (1989) Analyzing tables of statistical tests. Evolution, 43, 223225.
  • Robertson, H.G. (1999) Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Mkomazi. Mkomzai: The Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation of a Tanzanian Savanna (eds M.J.Coe, N.C.McWillaims, G.N.Stone & M.J.Packer), pp. 321336. RGS-IBG, London, UK.
  • Rotenberry, J.T. & Wiens, J.A. (1980) Habitat structure, patchiness and avian communities in North American steppe vegetation: a multivariate analysis. Ecology, 61, 12281250.
  • Scholes, R.J. & Walker, B.H. (1993) An African Savanna: Synthesis of the Nylsvley Study. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Swart, J.M., Richardson, P.R.K. & Ferguson, J.W.H. (1999) Ecological factors affecting the feeding behaviour of pangolins (Manis temminckii). Journal of Zoology, 247, 281292.
  • Swengel, A.B. (2001) A literature review of insect responses to fire, compared to other conservation managements of open habitats. Biodiversity and Conservation, 10, 11411169.
  • Tainton, N.M. & Mentis, M.T. (1984) Fire in grassland. Ecological Effects of Fire in South African Ecosystems (eds P. de V.Booysen & N.M.Tainton), pp. 115148. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
  • Trapnell, C.G. (1959) Ecological results of woodland burning experiments in northern Rhodesia. Journal of Ecology, 47, 129168.
  • Trollope, W.S.W. (1982) Ecological effects of fire in South African savannas. Ecology of Tropical Savannas (eds B.J.Huntley & B.H.Walker), pp. 292306. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
  • Trollope, W.S.W. (1984) Fire in savanna. Ecological Effects of Fire in South African Ecosystems (eds P. de V.Booysen & N.M.Tainton), pp. 151175. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
  • Trollope, W.S.W. & Tainton, N.M. (1986) Effect of fire intensity on the grass and bush components of the Eastern Cape thornveld. Journal of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa, 2, 2742.
  • Trollope, W.S.W., Potgieter, A.L.F., Biggs, H.C. & Trollope, L.A. (1998a) Report of the Experimental Burning Plots (EBP) Trial in the Major Vegetation Types of the Kruger National Park. Unpublished Report No. 9/98. Skukuza, South Africa.
  • Trollope, W.S.W., Trollope, L.A., Biggs, H.C., Pienaar, D. & Potgieter, A.L.F. (1998b) Long-term changes in the woody vegetation of Kruger National Park with special reference to the effects of elephants and fire. Koedoe, 41, 103112.
  • Vanderwoude, C., Andersen, A.N. & House, A.P.N. (1997) Community organization, biogeography and seasonality of ants in an open forest of south-eastern Queensland. Australian Journal of Zoology, 45, 523537.
  • Van Langevelde, F., Van de Vijver, C.A.D.M., Kumar, L., Van de Koppel, J., De Ridder, N., Van Andel, J., Skidmore, A.K., Hearne, J.W., Stroosnijder, L., Bond, W.J., Prins, H.H.T. & Rietkerk, M. (2003) Effects of fire and herbivory on the stability of savanna ecosystems. Ecology, 84, 337350.
  • Van Rensburg, B.J., Chown, S.L. & Gaston, K.J. (2002) Species richness, environmental correlates and spatial scale: a test using South African birds. American Naturalist, 159, 566577.
  • Van Wilgen, B.W., Biggs, H.C. & Potgieter, A.L.F. (1998) Fire management and research in the Kruger National Park, with suggestions on the detection of thresholds of potential concern. Koedoe, 41, 6987.
  • Venter, F. (1999) An Identification and Evaluation of Outliers in the Experimental Burning Plots, Kruger National Park. Unpublished Report. South African National Parks, Skukuza, South Africa.
  • York, A. (1994) The long-term effects of fire on forest ant communities: management implications for the conservation of biodiversity. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 36, 231239.
  • York, A. (1999) Long-term effects of frequent low-intensity burning on the abundance of litter-dwelling invertebrates in coastal blackbutt forests of southeastern Australia. Journal of Insect Conservation, 3, 191199.
  • Zimmer, K. & Parmenter, R.R. (1998) Harvester ants and fire in a desert grassland: ecological responses of Pogonomyrmex rugosus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to experimental wildfires in Central New Mexico. Environmental Entomology, 27, 282287.