SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ben-David, M., Flynn, R.W. & Schell, D.M. (1997) Annual and seasonal changes in diets of martens: evidence from stable isotope analysis. Oecologia, 111, 280288.
  • Best, P. & Schell, D.M. (1996) Stable isotopes in southern right whale (Eubaelena australis) baleen as indicators of seasonal movements, feeding and growth. Marine Biology, 124, 483494.
  • Cabana, G. & Rasmussen, J.B. (1994) Modelling food chain structure and contaminant bioaccumulation using stable nitrogen isotopes. Nature, 372, 255257.
  • Cifuentes, L.A., Sharp, J.H. & Fogel, M.L. (1988) Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry in the Delaware estuary. Limnology and Oceanography, 33, 11021115.
  • Van Dover, C.L., Grassle, J.F., Fry, B., Garritt, R.H. & Starczak, V.R. (1992) Stable isotope evidence for entry of sewage-derived organic material into a deep-sea food web. Nature, 360, 153155.
  • Forsberg, B.R., Araujo-Lima, C.A.R.M., Martinelli, L.A., Victoria, R.L. & Bonassi, J.A. (1993) Autotrophic carbon sources for fish in the central Amazon. Ecology, 74, 643652.
  • Fry, B. (1988) Food web structure on Georges Bank from stable C, N, and S isotopic compositions. Limnology and Oceanography, 33, 11821190.
  • Fry, B. (1991) Stable isotope diagrams of freshwater food webs. Ecology, 72, 22922297.
  • Fry, B. & Arnold, C. (1982) Rapid 13C/12C turnover during growth of brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus). Oecologia, 54, 200204.
  • Gannes, L.Z., O'Brien, D.M. & Del Rio, C.M. (1997) Stable isotopes in animal ecology: caveats, and a call for more laboratory experiments. Ecology, 78, 12711276.
  • Hillier, F.S. & Lieberman, G.J. (1990) Introduction to linear programming. Introduction to Operations Research, 5th edn, pp. 2957. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
  • Hobson, K.A. & Welch, H.E. (1992) Determination of trophic relationships within a high Arctic marine food web using δ13C and δ15N analysis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 84, 918.
  • Jackson, L.J. & Schindler, D.E. (1996) Field estimates of net trophic transfer of PCBs from prey fishes to Lake Michigan salmonids. Environmental Science and Technology, 30, 18611865.
  • Jarman, W.M., Hobson, K.A., Sydeman, W.J., Bacon, C.E. & McLaren, E.B. (1996) Influence of trophic position and feeding location on contaminant levels in the Gulf of the Farallones food web revealed by stable isotope analysis. Environmental Science and Technology, 30, 654660.
  • Junger, M. & Planas, D. (1994) Quantitative use of stable carbon isotope analysis to determine the trophic base of invertebrate communities in a boreal forest lotic system. Canadian Journal of Aquatic and Fisheries Sciences, 51, 5261.
  • Kirsch, P.E., Iverson, S.J., Bowen, W.D., Kerr, S.R. & Ackman, R.G. (1998) Dietary effects on the fatty acid signature of whole Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55, 13781386.
  • Kline, T.C., Wilson, W.J. & Goering, J.J. (1998) Natural isotope indicators of fish migration at Prudhoe Bay Alaska. Canadian Journal of Aquatic and Fisheries Sciences, 55, 14941502.
  • Lubetkin, S.C. (1997) Multi-source mixing models: food web determination using stable isotope tracers. MS Thesis. University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
  • Macko, S.A., Lee, W.Y. & Parker, P.L. (1982) Nitrogen and carbon isotope fractionation by two species of marine amphipods: laboratory and field studies. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 63, 145149.
  • Macko, S.A. & Ostrom, N.E. (1994) Pollution studies using stable isotopes. Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science (eds K.Lajtha & R.H.Michener), pp. 4562. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK.
  • Michener, R.H. & Schell, D.M. (1994) Stable isotope ratios as tracers in marine aquatic food webs. Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science (eds K.Lajtha & R.H.Michener), pp. 138157. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK.
  • Olive, P.J.W., Pinnegar, J.K., Polunin, N.V.C., Richards, G. & Welch, R. (2003) Isotope trophic-step fractionation: a dynamic equilibrium model. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72, 608617.
  • Ostrom, P.H., Colunga-Garcia, M. & Gage, S.H. (1997) Establishing pathways of energy flow for insect predators using stable isotope ratios: field and laboratory evidence. Oecologia, 109, 108113.
  • Owens, N.J.P. (1987) Natural variations in 15N in the marine environment. Advances in Marine Biology, 24, 389451.
  • Peterson, B.J. & Fry, B. (1987) Stable isotopes in ecosystem studies. Annual Review of Ecological Systematics, 18, 293320.
  • Peterson, B.J. & Howarth, R.W. (1987) Sulfur, carbon, and nitrogen isotopes used to trace organic matter flow in the salt-marsh estuaries of Sapelo Island, Georgia. Limnology and Oceanography, 32, 11951213.
  • Peterson, B.J., Howarth, R.W. & Garritt, R.H. (1986) Sulfur and carbon isotopes as tracers of salt-marsh organic matter flow. Ecology, 67, 865874.
  • Phillips, D.L. & Gregg, J.W. (2003) Source partitioning using stable isotopes: coping with too many sources. Oecologia, 136, 261269.
  • Post, D.M. (2002) Using stable isotopes to estimate trophic position: models, methods and assumptions. Ecology, 83, 703718.
  • Rau, G.H., Ainley, D.G., Bengtson, J.L., Torres, J. & Hopkins, T.L. (1992) 15N/14N and 13C/12C in Weddell Sea birds, seals and fish: implications for diet and trophic structure. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 84, 18.
  • Rosing, M.M., Ben-David, M. & Perry, R.R. (1998) Analysis of stable isotope data: a K nearest neighbors randomization test. Journal of Wildlife Management, 62, 380388.
  • Sackett, W.M. (1989) Stable carbon isotopes studies on organic matter in the marine environment. Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry. Volume 3. The Marine Environment (eds P.Fritz & J. ChFontes), pp. 139170. Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
  • Yoshioka, T., Wada, E. & Hayashi, H. (1994) A stable isotope study on seasonal food web dynamics in a eutrophic lake. Ecology, 75, 835846.