Value Structure Among Students and Steelworkers


  • 1This study was supported in part by a grant from the Finnish Work Environment Fund to the first author. The company under study employed the first author during the time of the data collection. The authors thank Irina Bezmenova, Robin Goodwin, Klaus Helkama, Terttu Kaustia, Armi Muhonen, Jorma Saari, Simo Salminen, and Lauri Tarkkonen for their help and comments. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their insightful suggestions.


The two-dimensional value structure postulated in Schwartz's (1992) theory has previously found support in samples of teachers and university students, but groups with other professions or low educational level have been understudied. The current study employed the 40-item Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ; Schwartz et al., 2001), multidimensional scaling, and transformation analysis to test the universality of the value structures among manual workers (n=815) and white-collar workers (n=459) in a Finnish steel company. Also, the validity of the instrument was confirmed by comparing the current PVQ sample of Finnish university students (n=309) and a previous sample of Finnish university students (n=615) studied with the original Schwartz Value Survey. The value structures of the steel workers followed Schwartz's theoretical model, regardless of the educational level, except for the security value.