2Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Nathan C. Hall, Department of Psychology and Social Behavior, University of California, Irvine, Social Ecology II, Irvine, CA, 92697-7085. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Primary and Secondary Control in Achievement Settings: A Longitudinal Field Study of Academic Motivation, Emotions, and Performance1
Article first published online: 25 MAY 2006
Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Volume 36, Issue 6, pages 1430–1470, June 2006
How to Cite
Hall, N. C., Perry, R. P., Ruthig, J. C., Hladkyj, S. and Chipperfield, J. G. (2006), Primary and Secondary Control in Achievement Settings: A Longitudinal Field Study of Academic Motivation, Emotions, and Performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36: 1430–1470. doi: 10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00067.x
1This study was supported by a doctoral fellowship to the first author and research grants to the second author from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (Grant Nos. 410-99-0435 and 410-2003-0059). This study also was funded in part by a graduate studentship to the first author from the Manitoba Health Research Council and a Canadian Institutes of Health Research Investigator Award to the fifth author. The assistance of the Motivation and Academic Achievement (MAACH) Research Group was invaluable in the collection of the data. The authors also wish to sincerely thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive and insightful comments on earlier versions of this manuscript. Parts of the research were presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association in New Orleans, April 2000; and in Seattle, April 2001.
- Issue published online: 25 MAY 2006
- Article first published online: 25 MAY 2006
The present research represents an application of Rothbaum et al.'s (1982) dual-process model of perceived control to adaptation in achievement settings. This eight-month longitudinal field study examined how primary and secondary control influenced end-of-year academic motivation (e.g., voluntary course withdrawal), emotions (e.g., stress, regret, pride), and performance (e.g., cumulative grade point average) in 703 first-year college students. For successful students, primary control related to better performance, higher motivation, and more positive affect. For unsuccessful students, the combination of primary and secondary control resulted in optimal academic adjustment. Unsuccessful students who rely on primary at the expense of secondary control risk serious long-term deficits in motivation and performance. These findings are discussed with respect to academic overconfidence and control-enhancing treatments.