This study investigates the relationship between psychological well-being and the impact of loss and psychological uncertainty after the 2000 Miyake Island volcanic eruption. 231 Japanese evacuees (ages 20-93, average 59.52 years old) responded to mailed questionnaires 10 months after the volcanic eruption in 2000. The questionnaire included the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) for posttraumatic stress disorder, an 11-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Study-Depression Scale (CES-D), assessment of disaster losses, demographics, and measure of relevant pre- and post-disaster activities (e.g., relocation, worry, doctor visits). Findings indicated that material loss and uncertainty of losses were significantly associated with higher rates of reported PTSD and depression symptoms. Those who relocated multiple times reported significantly higher rates of PTSD symptoms than those who relocated less frequently. Demographic characteristics such as being older, widowed, lower SES, less education, and longer length of residency on the island were also strongly associated with higher reported PTSD symptoms. Depression symptoms were strongly associated with being widowed, lower SES, longer length of residency on the island, and previous experiences of evacuations due to disasters.