The current study uses a newly developed questionnaire, the Effects of Children Questionnaire, to examine the impact of having children on women's lives. Participants were lower- and lower-middle-class women. The questionnaire assessed women's perceptions of their own change and other women's experiences of change as a result of having children in a number of life domains. Exploratory analyses, repeated-measures analyses, factor analyses, and regression analyses were used to test hypotheses. Results suggested that women do compare themselves with other women, that there are two primary factors underlying perceptions of change, and that there are significant changes from having children in various life domains. Results are discussed in terms of the costs and benefits of having children.