Spartina alterniflora genotype influences facilitation and suppression of high marsh species colonizing an early successional salt marsh

Authors

  • C. EDWARD PROFFITT,

    Corresponding author
    1. National Wetlands Research Center, US Geological Survey, 700 Cajundome Boulevard Lafayette, Louisiana 70506, USA;
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  • REBECCA L. CHIASSON,

    1. National Wetlands Research Center, US Geological Survey, 700 Cajundome Boulevard Lafayette, Louisiana 70506, USA;
    2. University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Biology Department, PO Box 42451, Lafayette, La 70504–2451, USA
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  • ALAINA B. OWENS,

    1. National Wetlands Research Center, US Geological Survey, 700 Cajundome Boulevard Lafayette, Louisiana 70506, USA;
    2. University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Biology Department, PO Box 42451, Lafayette, La 70504–2451, USA
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  • KEITH R. EDWARDS,

    1. Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, Czech Republic
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  • STEVEN E. TRAVIS

    1. National Wetlands Research Center, US Geological Survey, 700 Cajundome Boulevard Lafayette, Louisiana 70506, USA;
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C. Edward Proffitt (tel. +1 337/266 8603, fax +1 337/266 8586; e-mail edward_proffitt@usgs.gov).

Summary

  • 1Genetically based phenotypic and ecotypic variation in a dominant plant species can influence ecological functions and patterns of recruitment by other species in plant communities. However, the nature and degree of importance of genotypic differences is poorly understood in most systems.
  • 2The dominant salt marsh species, Spartina alterniflora, is known to induce facilitative and competitive effects in different plant species, and the outcomes of interactions can be affected by nutrients and flooding stress. Clonal genotypes, which maintained their different plant architecture phenotypes throughout 31 months of a field experiment, underwent considerable genet-specific senescence in their centres over the last 12 months.
  • 3Different clonal genotypes and different locations (robust edges vs. senescent centres) permitted significantly different levels of light penetration of the canopy (14.8–77.6%), thus establishing spatial heterogeneity for this important environmental factor.
  • 4S. alterniflora clonal genotype influenced the degree of suppression of the previously dominant Salicornia bigelovii as well as facilitation of recruitment and growth by other plant species. Aster subulatus and Atriplex patula performed better in Spartina clone centres, and experienced reduced growth in Salicornia-dominated areas.
  • 5Four other high marsh species (Borrichia frutescens, Aster tenuifolius, Iva frutescens and Limonium carolinianum) colonized only into Spartina clones but not into the Salicornia-dominated area.
  • 6These results suggest that differences in clone size, centre senescence, stem density, height, total stem length and biomass in different genotypes of a dominant marsh plant species can influence recruitment and growth of other plant species. The spatial pattern of habitat heterogeneity is, at least in part, dependent on the genotypic diversity, and possibly the genetic diversity, of such foundation species.
  • 7We hypothesize that as genotypic diversity increases in populations of a dominant plant species like S. alterniflora, the number and diversity of interactions with other species will increase as well.

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