SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aiba, S.I. & Kohyama, T. (1996) Tree species stratification in relation to allometry and demography in a warm temperate rain forest. Journal of Ecology, 84, 207218.
  • Aiba, S.I. & Kohyama, T. (1997) Crown architecture and life-history traits of 14 tree species in a warm-temperate rain forest: significance of spatial heterogeneity. Journal of Ecology, 85, 611624.
  • Augspurger, C.K. & Kelly, C.K. (1984) Pathogen mortality of tropical tree seedlings experimental studies of the effects of dispersal distance seedling density and light conditions. Oecologia, 61, 211217.
  • Castro-Diez, P., Puyravaud, J.P., Cornelissen, J.H.C. & Villar-Salvador, P. (1998) Stem anatomy and relative growth rate in seedlings of a wide range of woody plant species and types. Oecologia, 116, 5766.
  • Claussen, J.W. & Maycock, C.R. (1995) Stem allometry in a North Queensland tropical rainforest. Biotropica, 27, 421426.
  • Coley, P.D. (1988) Effects of plant growth rate and leaf lifetime on the amount and type of anti-herbivore defense. Oecologia, 74, 531536.
  • Condit, R., Hubbell, S.P. & Foster, R.B. (1996) Assessing the response of plant functional types to climate change in tropical forests. Journal of Vegetation Science, 7, 405416.
  • Dalling, J.W., Hubbell, S.P. & Katia, S. (1998) Seed dispersal, seedling establishment and gap partitioning among tropical pioneer trees. Journal of Ecology, 86, 674689.
  • Davies, S.J. (1998) Photosynthesis of nine pioneer Macaranga species from Borneo in relation to life history. Ecology, 79, 22922308.
  • Davies, S.J. (2001) Tree mortality and growth in 11 sympatric Macaranga species in Borneo. Ecology, 82, 920932.
  • Ellsworth, D.S. & Reich, P.B. (1993) Canopy structure and vertical patterns of photosynthesis and related leaf traits in a deciduous forest. Oecologia, 96, 169178.
  • Enquist, B.J. (2002) Universal scaling in tree and vascular plant allometry: toward a general quantitative theory linking plant form and function from cells to ecosystems. Tree Physiology, 22, 10451064.
  • Enquist, B.J., West, G.B., Charnov, E.L. & Brown, J.H. (1999) Allometric scaling of production and life-history variation in vascular plants. Nature, 401, 907911.
  • Falster, D.S., Warton, D.I. & Wright, I.J. (2003) (S)MATR: standardised major axis tests and routines. http://www.bio.mq.edu.au/ecology/SMATR.
  • Falster, D.S. & Westoby, M. (2003) Plant height and evolutionary games. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, 337343.
  • Foster, S.A. & Janson, C.H. (1985) The relationship between seed size and establishment conditions in tropical woody plants. Ecology, 66, 773780.
  • Givnish, T.J. (1982) Adaptive significance of leaf height in forest herbs. American Naturalist, 120, 353381.
  • Givnish, T.J. (1988) Adaptation to sun and shade: a whole-plant perspective. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 15, 6392.
  • Givnish, T. (1995) Plant stems: biomechanical adaptation for energy capture and influence on species distributions. Plant Stems: Physiology and Functional Morphology (ed. B.Gartner), pp. 349. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • Gómez-Popma, A. & Vászquez-Yanes, C. (1981) Successional studies of a rain forest in Mexico. Forest Succession: Concepts and Applications (eds C.West, H.H.Shugart & D.B.Botkin), pp. 246266. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G. & Hunt, R.J. (1988) Comparative Plant Ecology. A Functional Approach to Common British Species Unwyn Hyman, London.
  • Grubb, P.J., Metcalfe, D.J., Grubb, E.A. & Jones, G.D. (1998) Nitrogen-richness and protection of seeds in Australian tropical rainforest: a test of plant defence theory. Oikos, 82, 467482.
  • Hacke, U.G., Sperry J.S., Pockman W.T., Davis S.D. & McCulloh K.A. (2001) Trends in wood density and structure are linked to prevention of xylem implosion by negative pressure. Oecologia, Berlin, 126, 457461.
  • Hacke, U.G., Sperry, J.S. & Pitterman, J. (2000) Drought experience and cavitation resistance in six shrubs from the Great Basin. Utah Basic and Applied Ecology, 1, 3141.
  • Hirose, T. & Werger, M.J.A. (1995) Canopy structure and photon flux partitioning among species in a herbaceous plant community. Ecology, 76, 466474.
  • Hopkins, M.S. & Graham, A.W. (1987) The viability of seeds of rainforest species after experimental soil burials under tropical wet lowland forest in northeastern australia. Australian Journal of Ecology, 12, 97108.
  • Horn, H. (1971) The Adaptive Geometry of Trees. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
  • Huston, M. & Smith, T. (1987) Plant succession: life history and competition. The American Naturalist, 130, 168198.
  • Hyland, B.P.M., Whiffin, T., Christophel, D.C., Gray, B., Elick, R.W. & Ford, A.J. (1999) Australian Tropical Rain Forest Trees and Shrubs. CSIRO Australia, East Melbourne.
  • Ishii, H., Reynolds, J.H., Ford, E.D. & Shaw, D.C. (2000) Height growth and vertical development of an old-growth Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forest in southwestern Washington State, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 30, 1724.
  • Iwasa, Y., Cohen, D. & Leon, J.A. (1985) Tree height and crown shape, as results of competitive games. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 112, 279298.
  • King, D.A. (1991) Tree allometry leaf size and adult tree size in old-growth forests of western Oregon. Tree Physiology, 9, 369382.
  • King, D.A. (1994) Influence of light level on the growth and morphology of saplings in a Panamanian forest. American Journal of Botany, 81, 948957.
  • King, D.A. (1996) Allometry and life history of tropical trees. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 12, 2544.
  • Kitajima, K. (1994) Relative importance of photosynthetic traits and allocation patterns as correlates of seedling shade tolerance of 13 tropical trees. Oecologia, 98, 419428.
  • Kohyama, T. (1987) Significance of architecture and allometry in saplings. Functional Ecology, 1, 399404.
  • Kohyama, T. (1993) Size-structured tree populations in gap-dynamic forest: the forest architecture hypothesis for the stable coexistence of species. Journal of Ecology, 81, 131143.
  • Kohyama, T. & Hotta, M. (1990) Significance of allometry in tropical saplings. Functional Ecology, 4, 515521.
  • Kohyama, T., Suzuki, E., Partomihardjo, T., Yamada, T. & Kubo, T. (2003) Tree species differentiation in growth, recruitment and allometry in relation to maximum height in a Bornean mixed dipterocarp forest. Journal of Ecology, 91, 797806.
  • Lawton, R.O. (1984) Ecological constraints on wood density in a tropical montane rain forest. American Journal of Botany, 71, 261267.
  • Leishman, M.R., Wright, I.J., Moles, A.T. & Westoby, M. (2000) The evolutionary ecology of seed size. Seeds – the Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities (ed. M.Fenner), pp. 3157. CAB International, Wallingford.
  • Loehle, C.F. (1988) Tree life history strategies: the role of defenses. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 18, 209222.
  • Loehle, C. (2000) Strategy space and the disturbance spectrum: a life-history model for tree species coexistence. The American Naturalist, 156, 1433.
  • Manly, B.F.J. (1997) Randomization, Bootstrap and Monte Carlo Methods in Biology, 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • McArdle, B.H. (1988) The structural relationship – regression in biology. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 66, 23292339.
  • Moles, A., Falster, D.S., Leishman, M. & Westoby, M. (2004) Small-seeded plants produce more seeds per square metre of canopy per year, but not per individual per lifetime. Journal of Ecology, 92, 384396 .
  • Navas, M.-L., Ducout, B., Roumet, C., Richarte, J., Garnier, J. & Garnier, E. (2003) Leaf life span, dynamics and construction cost of species from Mediterranean old-fields differing in successional status. New Phytology, 159, 213228.
  • Niklas, K. (1994) Plant Allometry: the Scaling of Form and Process. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Osada, N., Takeda, H., Furukawa, A. & Awang, M. (2002) Changes in shoot allometry with increasing tree height in a tropical canopy species, Elateriospermum tapos. Tree Physiology, 22, 625632.
  • Osunkoya, O.O. (1996) Light requirements for regeneration in tropical forest plants: taxon-level and ecological attribute effects. Australian Journal of Ecology, 21, 429441.
  • Osunkoya, O.O., Ash, J.E., Hopkins, M.S. & Graham, A.W. (1994) Influence of seed size and seedling ecological attributes on shade-tolerance of rain-forest tree species in northern Queensland. Journal of Ecology, 82, 149163.
  • Pacala, S.W., Canham, C.D., Saponara, J., Silander, J.A., Kobe, R.K. & Ribbens, E. (1996) Forest models defined by field measurements – estimation, error analysis and dynamics. Ecological Monographs, 66, 143.
  • Pacala, S.W. & Deutschman, D.H. (1995) Details that matter – the spatial distribution of individual trees maintains forest ecosystem function. Oikos, 74, 357365.
  • Pacala, S.W. & Rees, M. (1998) Models suggesting field experiments to test two hypotheses explaining successional diversity. The American Naturalist, 152, 729737.
  • Pitman, E.T.G. (1939) A note on normal correlation. Biometrika, 31, 912.
  • Poorter, L. (1999) Growth responses of 15 rain-forest tree species to a light gradient: the relative importance of morphological and physiological traits. Functional Ecology, 13, 396410.
  • Poorter, L., Bongers, F., Sterck, F. & Wöll, H. (2003) Architecture of 53 rain forest tree species differing in adult stature and shade tolerance. Ecology, 84, 602608 .
  • Poorter, L., Oberbauer, S.F. & Clark, D.B. (1995) Leaf optical properties along a vertical gradient in a tropical rain forest canopy in Costa Rica. American Journal of Botany, 82, 12571263.
  • Poorter, L. & Werger, M.J.A. (1999) Light environment, sapling architecture, and leaf display in six rain forest tree species. American Journal of Botany, 86, 14641473.
  • Putz, F.E., Coley, P.D., Lu, K., Montalvo, A. & Aiello, A. (1983) Uprooting and snapping of trees: structural determinants and ecological consequences. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 13, 10111020.
  • Reich, P.B., Walters, M.B. & Ellsworth, D.S. (1992) Leaf life-span in relation to leaf, plant, and stand characteristics among diverse ecosystems. Ecological Monographs, 62, 365392.
  • Reich, P.B., Wright, I.J., Cavender-Bares, J.M., Craine, J., Oleksyn, J., Westoby, M. et al. (2003) The evolution of plant functional variation: traits, spectra and strategies. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 164, S143S164.
  • Schippers, P. & Olff, H. (2000) Biomass partitioning, architecture and turnover of six herbaceous species from habitats with different nutrient supply. Plant Ecology, 149, 219231.
  • Shugart, H.H. (1984) A Theory of Forest Dynamics: the Ecological Implications of Forest Succession. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Sterck, F.J. & Bongers, F. (2001) Crown development in tropical rain forest trees: patterns with tree height and light availability. Journal of Ecology, 89, 113.
  • Sterck, F.J., Bongers, F. & Newbery, D.M. (2001) Tree architecture in a Bornean lowland rain forest: intraspecific and interspecific patterns. Plant Ecology, 153, 279292.
  • Suzuki, E. (1999) Diversity in specific gravity and water content of wood among Bornean tropical rainforest trees. Ecological Research, 14, 211224.
  • Ter Steege, H. & Hammond, D.S. (2001) Character convergence, diversity, and disturbance in tropical rain forest in Guyana. Ecology, 82, 31973212.
  • Thomas, S.C. (1996) Asymptotic height as a predictor of growth and allometric characteristics in Malaysian rain forest trees. American Journal of Botany, 83, 556566.
  • Thomas, S.C. & Bazzaz, F.A. (1999) Asymptotic height as a predictor of photosynthetic characteristics in Malaysian rain forest trees. Ecology, 80, 16071622.
  • Tracey, J.G. (1982) The Vegetation of the Humid Tropical Region of North Queensland. CSIRO, Melbourne.
  • Turner, I.M. (2001) The Ecology of Trees in the Tropical Rain Forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Walters, M.B. & Reich, P.B. (1999) Low-light carbon balance and shade tolerance in the seedlings of woody plants: do winter deciduous and broad-leaved evergreen species differ? New Phytologist, 143, 143154.
  • Warton, D.I. & Weber, N.C. (2002) Common slope tests for bivariate structural relationships. Biometrical Journal, 44, 161174.
  • Webb, L.J. & Tracey, J.G. (1994) The rain forests of northern Australia. Australian Vegetation (ed. R.H.Groves), pp. 67101. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Weiher, E., Van Der Werf, A., Thompson, K., Roderick, M.L., Garnier, E. & Eriksson, O. (1999) Challenging Theophrastus: a common core list of plant traits for functional ecology. Journal of Vegetation Science, 10, 609620.
  • Westoby, M. (1998) A leaf-height-seed (LHS) plant ecology strategy scheme. Plant and Soil, 199, 213227.
  • Westoby, M., Falster, D.S., Moles, A., Vesk, P. & Wright, I.J. (2002) Plant ecological strategies: some leading dimensions of variation between species. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33, 125159.
  • Wright, I.J., Reich, P.B. & Westoby, M. (2001) Strategy shifts in leaf physiology, structure and nutrient content between species of high- and low-rainfall and high- and low-nutrient habitats. Functional Ecology, 15, 423434.
  • Wright, I.J., Reich, P.B., Westoby, M., Ackerly, D.D., Baruch, Z., Bongers, F. et al. (2004) The world-wide leaf economics spectrum. Nature, 428, 821827.