A cross-cultural test of the work-family interface in 48 countries


School of Family Life, Brigham Young University, P.O. Box 25524, Provo, UT 84602-5524 and IBM Corporation, North Castle Drive, Armonk, NY 10504 (jeff_hill@byu.edu).


This study tests a cross-cultural model of the work-family interface. Using multigroup structural equation modeling with IBM survey responses from 48 countries (N= 25,380), results show that the same work-family interface model that fits the data globally also fits the data in a four-group model composed of culturally related groups of countries, as well as a two-group gender model. This supports a transportable rather than a culturally specific or gender-specific work-family interface model: notably, job flexibility related to reduced work-family conflict, reduced family-work conflict, and enhanced work-family fit. Work-family fit related to increased job satisfaction. Findings suggest that investment by multinational companies in job flexibility initiatives may represent a dual-agenda way to benefit men, women, and businesses in diverse cultures.