• Aberration simulation;
  • adaptive optics;
  • confocal and multiphoton microscopy;
  • interferometry;
  • oocyte cell;
  • optical fibre;
  • pupil function;
  • ray tracing;
  • Zernike mode representation of the wavefront


Wavefront aberrations caused by the refractive index structure of the specimen are known to compromise signal intensity and three-dimensional resolution in confocal and multiphoton microscopy. However, adaptive optics can measure and correct specimen-induced aberrations. For the design of an adaptive optics system, information on the type and amount of the aberration is required. We have previously described an interferometric set-up capable of measuring specimen-induced aberrations and a method for the extraction of the Zernike mode content. In this paper we have modelled specimen-induced aberrations caused by spherical and cylindrical objects using a ray tracing method. The Zernike mode content of the wavefronts was then extracted from the simulated wavefronts and compared with experimental results. Aberrations for a simple model of an oocyte cell consisting of two spherical regions and for a model of a well-characterized optical fibre are calculated. This simple model gave Zernike mode data that are in good agreement with experimental results.