The tiny jumping flagellate originally described as Pedinomonas mikron Throndsen was isolated into pure culture from Australian waters and its ultrastructure critically examined. Pedinomonas mikron differs in behavior and in features of the flagellar apparatus from P. minor, the type species from freshwater, and is referred to the new genus Resultor. The two genera are closely related and form the new class Pedinophyceae, which is characterized by features of the flagellar apparatus, mitosis, and cytokinesis. The flagella show the 11/5 orientation otherwise characteristic of Ulvophyceae and Pleurastrophyceae, but they are arranged end to end as in the Chlorophyceae. The flagellar root system is asymmetric and includes a rhizoplast that emerges from the base of one flagellum but subsequently associates with a microtubular root from the second basal body. Mitosis studied previously by Pickett-Heaps and Ott in Pedinomonas is closed, unlike in other green algae, and the spindle is persistent. No phycoplast or phragmoplast is formed during cytokinesis. The eyespot of the Pedinophyceae is located at the opposite end of the cell from the flagella and adjacent to the pyrenoid, as in the most primitive members of the Prasinophyceae. Members of the Pedinophyceae lack prasinoxanthin and Mg 2,4D, characteristic of certain other primitive green algae.
The primitive green algae include the classes Prasinophyceae and Pedinophyceae. Micromonadophyceae Mattox et Stewart is considered a synonym of Prasinophyceae.
Two new orders are established, Pedinomonadales, containing all known members of the Pedinophyceae, and Scourfieldiales, with the single family Scourfieldiaceae fam. nov. and the single genus Scourfieldia.