Received 22 March 1993. Accepted 23 August 1993.
BETA/KAPPA-CARRAGEENANS AS EVIDENCE FOR CONTINUED SEPARATION OF THE FAMILIES DICRANEMATACEAE AND SARCODIACEAE (GIGARTINALES, RHODOPHYTA)1
Article first published online: 20 OCT 2004
Journal of Phycology
Volume 29, Issue 6, pages 833–844, December 1993
How to Cite
Liao, M.-L., Kraft, G. T., Munro, S. L. A., Craik, D. J. and Bacic, A. (1993), BETA/KAPPA-CARRAGEENANS AS EVIDENCE FOR CONTINUED SEPARATION OF THE FAMILIES DICRANEMATACEAE AND SARCODIACEAE (GIGARTINALES, RHODOPHYTA). Journal of Phycology, 29: 833–844. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-3646.1993.833_a.x
We thank Eva Lau for her technical support and Prof. Max Hommersand and an anonymous reviewer for their helpful comments. Funding for the project has been supplied by the Australian Research Council.
- Issue published online: 20 OCT 2004
- Article first published online: 20 OCT 2004
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The Dicranemataceae consists of five species in four genera of macroscopic red algae endemic to the southern half of Australia plus a single species from southern Japan. Investigations of the nonfibrillar wall components of five of the six species show that all are composed mainly of hybrid (or mixed) beta (β)/kappa(κ)-type carrageenans. Detailed studies of Tylotus obtusatus (Sonder) J. Agardh show that it produces the largest dry-weight percentage of β-carrageenan yet recorded. Monosaccharide composition, total sulfate content, sulfation pattern revealed by infrared and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a positive specific optical rotation ([α]D+ 54°) are indicative of a low-sulfate-containing carrageenan with gelling properties similar to those of agar and furcellaran. β-carrageenan is recorded in only five other red algal species belonging to relatively unrelated families, and we conclude that its uniform occurrence in the highly specialized family Dicranemataceae has phylogenetic significance. Chemical and anatomical examination of the genus Sarcodia, which produce lambda-type carrageenan in both its gametophytic and tetrasporophytic phases, suggests that, despite the recent proposal to incorporate the Dicranemataceae into the Sarcodiaceae, the two families should continue to be separated.