The authors thank Babu Nahata for his help in framing the research question. Also, we greatly appreciate the research support of Dan Freeman, Barry Kornstein, Marianne Maljaars-Scott, Raj Narang, Michael Price, and Martye Scobee in building, analyzing, and documenting the extensive database used in the analysis. Doug Woodward and Paolo Guimarães provided insights into the specification of the multinomial logit models. Three anonymous referees offered insightful reviews, and we thank them for helping us improve the paper. Earlier versions of this paper benefited from comments received at the North American Meetings of the Regional Science Association International held in San Juan, Puerto Rico, November 2002, and the Southern Regional Science Association Meetings held in Louisville, Kentucky, April 2003. This research was sponsored in part by grants from the C. E. & S. Foundation and from National City.
The Location Choice of Employment-based Immigrants among U.S. Metro Areas*
Article first published online: 27 JAN 2005
Journal of Regional Science
Volume 45, Issue 1, pages 113–145, February 2005
How to Cite
Scott, D. M., Coomes, P. A. and Izyumov, A. I. (2005), The Location Choice of Employment-based Immigrants among U.S. Metro Areas. Journal of Regional Science, 45: 113–145. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-4146.2005.00366.x
- Issue published online: 27 JAN 2005
- Article first published online: 27 JAN 2005
- Received July 2003; revised January 2004; accepted June 2004.
Abstract. This paper examines the initial location choice of legal employment-based immigrants to the United States using Immigration and Naturalization Service data on individual immigrants, as well as economic, demographic, and social data to characterize the 298 metropolitan areas we define as the universal choice set. Focusing on interactions between place characteristics and immigrant characteristics, we provide multinomial logit model estimates for the location choices of about 38,000 employment-based immigrants to the United States in 1995, focusing on the top 10 source countries. We find that, as groups, immigrants from nearly all countries are attracted to large cities with superior climates, and to cities with relatively well-educated adults and high wages. We also find evidence that employment-based immigrants tend to choose cities where there are relatively few immigrants of nationalities other than their own. However, when we introduce interaction terms to account for the sociodemographic characteristics of the individual immigrants, we find that the estimated effects of location destination factors can reverse as one takes account of the age, gender, marital status, and previous occupation of the immigrants.