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Navigating Rough Waters: An Overview of Psychological Aspects of Surrogacy


*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Janice C. Ciccarelli, 250 W. 1st Street, Suite 314, Claremont, California 91711 [e-mail:].


This article provides an overview of the social and psychological aspects surrounding the surrogacy process including attitudes about surrogacy, perceptions and problems of surrogate mothers and intended/social parents, and questions concerning children resulting from contractual parenting. Review of the literature on contractual parenting reveals a wealth of discussion about the ethical, moral, legal, and psychological implications, but limited empirical data on the psychological and social aspects. Future research can provide empirical evidence as a foundation for counseling at all phases of the surrogacy process.