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Advances in new reproductive health technologies have surfaced an array of social and behavioral issues regarding decision-making and use of these technologies, underscoring the need for research on such topics as reproductive health decision-making, sexual practices, and norms and values for childbearing and family formation. Using topical microbicides as an example of a new method to prevent Sexually Transmitted infections (STIs), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and/or pregnancy, we focus on gaps in information to inform reproductive health decision-making, noting in particular the discrepancies between data on clinical efficacy and typical use-effectiveness. Constraints on government and private sector support for research, particularly research on aspects of sexual behavior, contribute to problems with the availability of information for decision-making about use of reproductive health technologies.