Gila A. Schauer, Department of Linguistics and English Language
Pragmatic Awareness in ESL and EFL Contexts: Contrast and Development
Article first published online: 5 MAY 2006
© 2006 Language Learning Research Club, University of Michigan
Volume 56, Issue 2, pages 269–318, June 2006
How to Cite
Schauer, G. A. (2006), Pragmatic Awareness in ESL and EFL Contexts: Contrast and Development. Language Learning, 56: 269–318. doi: 10.1111/j.0023-8333.2006.00348.x
The author thanks Kathleen Bardovi-Harlig and Zoltán Dörnyei for granting permission to use their research instrument and the three anonymous reviewers for their helpful and insightful comments. This study was supported by a British “Arts and Humanities Research Board”(AHRB) studentship award.
An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Annual Conference of the American Association of Applied Linguistics (Portland, Oregon, May 1–4, 2004).
- Issue published online: 5 MAY 2006
- Article first published online: 5 MAY 2006
The study reported on in this article set out to replicate and extend Bardovi-Harlig and Dörnyei's (1998) investigation of pragmatic awareness by addressing two research questions: (a) Do learners in English as a foreign language (EFL) and English as a second language (ESL) contexts display differences in their recognition and rating of pragmatic and grammatical errors?(b) Do ESL learners increase their pragmatic awareness during an extended stay in the target environment? The data were elicited using Bardovi-Harlig and Dörnyei's video-and-questionnaire instrument accompanied by post hoc interviews. The 53 participants in the study included 16 German students studying at a British university, 17 German students enrolled in a higher education institution in Germany, and 20 British English native-speaking controls. The data show that the German EFL participants were less aware of pragmatic infelicities than the ESL group and that the ESL learners increased their pragmatic awareness significantly during their stay in Great Britain.