Paul Toth, Departments of Curriculum & Instruction and Spanish & Portuguese, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Processing Instruction and a Role for Output in Second Language Acquisition
Article first published online: 5 MAY 2006
© 2006 Language Learning Research Club, University of Michigan
Volume 56, Issue 2, pages 319–385, June 2006
How to Cite
Toth, P. D. (2006), Processing Instruction and a Role for Output in Second Language Acquisition. Language Learning, 56: 319–385. doi: 10.1111/j.0023-8333.2006.00349.x
I am greatly indebted to the Spanish students at the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Akron who participated in this study, as well as the instructors who graciously volunteered much time and effort to implement the treatment conditions, including: Joyce Rowan, Regina Schroder, Corey Shouse, and Tim Aiken. A number of individuals also gave helpful advice, comments, and feedback on the design of this study and the text of this article. Special thanks are due to: Alan Juffs, Robert DeKeyser, Richard Donato, Bill VanPatten, Rafael Salaberry, and three anonymous reviewers. Invaluable statistical advice was provided by Richard Steiner at the University of Akron. Any remaining errors are my own.
An earlier version of this article was presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics, May 1–4, 2004, in Portland, Oregon.
- Issue published online: 5 MAY 2006
- Article first published online: 5 MAY 2006
This study addresses the role of output in second language (L2) acquisition by comparing processing instruction (PI) to communicative output (CO) tasks. Participants included 80 English-speaking adults from six university course sections of beginning L2 Spanish, with two assigned to each treatment (PI = 27; CO = 28) and two others comprising a control group (n = 25). Instruction lasted 7 days and targeted the anticausative clitic se. One lesson was videotaped and transcribed in each treatment group. Results on grammaticality judgment and guided production tasks administered before, immediately after, and 24 days following instruction indicated similar grammaticality judgment improvements, but more frequent uses of se by CO learners on guided production. Transcript data suggest a role for output in acquisition involving attention to, and metalinguistic analyses of, L2 structure.